Meanings of Family Surnames: Exploring Origins of Last Names

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post, Mary discusses the origins and meanings of various family surnames, and shows how including the origins of your family surnames in your genealogy research may reveal intriguing clues about your ancestry.

Ever wonder about the origin of your family surname? If so, you are not alone.

Many people would like to learn about their family surname, but don’t know where to look for more information. Fortunately, historical and modern newspapers frequently have articles about last names. Look for these articles in GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives.

Crispin’s French Origins

Many newspaper articles discuss the meaning of specific surnames, such as this 1871 piece on the surname Crispin. The patron saint of shoemakers was St. Crispin, which is derived from the French term “crepin,” which means a shoemaker’s last (mechanical form in the shape of a foot). (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last.)

article about the family surname Crispin, Massachusetts Spy newspaper article 8 September 1871

Massachusetts Spy (Worcester, Massachusetts), 8 September 1871, page 4

Other historical newspaper articles discuss the etymology or nomenclature of surnames, which is the study of their origins. Where did particular names come from? How were they assigned? Is there a special meaning behind them? All of these are interesting components for your genealogical research and can lead to a deeper understanding of your familial roots.

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The First English Surnames

This 1893 newspaper article reports that the first English surname was adopted in the reign of King Edward the Confessor of England, who ruled between 1042 and 1066. If correct, this first surname was probably for a nobleman and most likely established to carry on hereditary rights (titles, and later property).

article about various firsts in history, Bay City Times newspaper article 30 June 1893

Bay City Times (Bay City, Michigan), 30 June 1893, page 1

This 1823 newspaper article also reports that surnames were first adopted in the 11th century in England, and “for the distinction of families in which they were to continue hereditary.”

The old news article notes that the term “surname” came not from the word “sire,” but from a French concept indicating a super-addendum (or additional name added to one’s religious or Christian name). Of course, surnames weren’t just required for Christians, but for every culture and religion.

Origin of Surnames, Rhode-Island American newspaper article 4 November 1823

Rhode-Island American (Providence, Rhode Island), 4 November 1823, page 1

Patronymics and Matronymics

As human populations grew, there needed to be a system to identify individuals. Each country chose their own method, and within a society, a religious group or individualized group, some might have chosen their own unique system.

One early naming identification method was to associate a son’s surname with a father’s first name, and a daughter’s with her mother’s.

This is known as patronymics and matronymics, and if you ever come across a person with just one name, this is called mononymics (usually associated with rulers or famous individuals). See Wikipedia’s article on patronymics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patronymic.

A Look at Surnames around the World

Depending upon cultural customs, a specific spelling or pattern for the name was designated.

In most cases the surname was modified, but in some cases the name was constructed differently. In some parts of Asia for example, the surname is given first, rather than last—and in other places, another word is inserted to indicate the family relationship.

Hebrew: One culture where you will find examples of this practice of word insertion in names is with the Jews. Hebrew names are often expressed with the use of “ben,” meaning son of, or with “bint,” meaning daughter of.

article about Jewish surnames, Rhode-Island American newspaper article 4 November 1823

Rhode-Island American (Providence, Rhode Island), 4 November 1823, page 1

Ireland: Watch for names such as Fitzgerald—the “fitz” indicates that someone was the son of Gerald. According to Behind the Name’s website, this particular surname came from the Anglo-Norman French and was introduced to Ireland at the time of William the Conqueror. See http://surnames.behindthename.com/name/fitzgerald.

Netherlands: Dutch patronymics can carry on for several generations. The Dutch Wikipedia explanation is that a “Willem Peter Adriaan Jan Verschuren would be Willem, son of Peter, son of Adriaan, son of Jan Verschuren.” See Dutch surnames at http://surnames.behindthename.com/names/usage/dutch.

Poland: A common way to express a son’s last name is by the use of “wicz” at the end. Correspondingly, “ówna” or “’anka” may be used for an unmarried daughter, and “owa” or “’ina” for a married woman or widow.

Wikipedia’s article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_name gives the example of a man with the last name of Nowak. His unmarried daughter would use Nowakówna and his wife or widow would use Nowakowa.

If you encounter a name ending in “ski,” the person is a male. If you see “ska” at the end, the person is female. There are many other variations, including “wicz,” “owicz,” “ewicz,” and “ycz” which can be added to a name, along with diminutives (similar to calling someone “little” as a pet name). See About.com’s article at http://genealogy.about.com/cs/surname/a/polish_surnames.htm for more examples.

Scandinavia: “Son” or “dotter” or “dottir” is a common addition for boys and girls names, and there are slight spelling variations from country to country. Although most of Scandinavia no longer practices patronymics, you may still see it in Iceland.

Examples: a daughter of a man named Sven might use the surname Svensdottir, and Leif Ericson, the famous Norse explorer, has a name that identifies him as the son of an Eric (Erik the Red.) See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leif_Erikson.

Naming People in Norway, National Advocate newspaper article 28 November 1828

National Advocate (New York, New York) 28 November 1828, page 2

Spain/Portugal: Although it doesn’t mean son, “ez” (Spain) and “es” (Portugal) are used to indicate males, such as with the names Gonzales or Hernandez. See the article on Spanish patronymics at http://spanishlinguist.us/2013/08/spanish-patronymics/.

Wales: Over time, there have been several variations of name usage in Wales. Sometimes you’ll find that the surnames of children were an unmodified version of the father’s name. A son Rees might be named James Rees. Another option related to the terms “ap” (son of) or “verch/ferch” (daughter of). The name Madog ap Rhys would be interpreted as Madog, the son of Rhys, and Maredudd ferch Rhys would be Maredudd, the daughter of Rhys.

To complicate matters, a name might indicate if a woman were the first or second wife of a man, or a widow.

For an in-depth explanation, see Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn’s article “Women’s Names in the First Half of 16th Century Wales (with particular attention to the surnames of married women)” at www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welshWomen16/.

These are just some of the many types of matronyms and patronyms that you might find while researching your ancestry, so be sure to investigate your ancestral countries further.

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Naming by Association (towns, physical attributes, etc.)

We can thank the practice of taxation for other methods of assigning surnames, some of which are attributed to the English poll taxes of 1377, 1379 and 1381.

See “The English Poll Taxes, 1377-1381” by George Redmonds, 28 March 2002, published online by American Ancestors.org at www.americanancestors.org/the-english-poll-taxes-1377-1381/.

In order to keep track of who owed what taxes, names were recorded on the tax rolls in a variety of ways. Some people were associated with their villages, others by trades or occupations, and others by distinguishing features or attributes such as a very tall, or blind, man.

Most Common Surnames by Country

If you are stuck on the origins of your last name, consider the commonality of names in specific places.

Most of us are aware that Smith and Jones are among the most familiar U.S. surnames, but what about other countries?

Wikipedia’s article List of the Most Common Surnames in Europe has an interesting list, some of which I’ve included below. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_the_most_common_surnames_in_Europe.

  • Belgium: Peeters (meaning the rock, similar to Petros, Peterson, Peters, Perez)
  • England: Smith (a tradesman)
  • France: Martin
  • Germany: Miller
  • Greece: Nagy (meaning great) or Papadopoulos
  • Ireland: Murphy or Of Murchadh (a personal name meaning descendant of Murchadh or “sea hound/warrior”)
  • Italy: Rossi and Russo (red-haired)
  • Luxembourg: Schmit (blacksmith, metal worker, equivalent to Smith)
  • Netherlands: De Jong (equivalent of Young)
  • Northern Ireland: Wilson
  • Norway: Hansen (son of Hans)
  • Poland: Nowak (meaning new man)
  • Scotland: Smith
  • Spain: Garcia (means brave in battle)
  • Sweden: Anderssen (son of Anders)
  • Wales: Jones (of Medieval English origins, derived from the given name John, which in turn is derived from the Hebrew name Yochanan/Johanan)

Genealogical Facts a Surname Might Reveal

Be sure to include the origins of your family surnames in your genealogy research, as they may reveal intriguing clues about your ancestry:

  • Country of origin or hometown
  • Occupation
  • Parentage
  • Physical and mental attributes
  • Religion

An example in my own research is the surname Exton. This family came to America from Euxton, England, an obvious spelling variation. And my maiden name, Harrell, has Norman-French origins. Although a legend, Madame Marie Harel or Harrell is thought to have been the creator of Camembert Cheese in 1791. This is a family favorite of ours today, so perhaps there is a connection!

Genealogy Tip: don’t forget to consider spelling variations in your surname research. My earlier blog article Ancestral Name Searches: 4 Tips for Tracing Surname Spellings provides some examples of how names change over time.

Resources for Researching Surnames

Related Family Surname Research Articles

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Ancestral Name Searches: 4 Tips for Tracing Surname Spellings

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post, Mary explains that ancestral surnames may have been spelled differently in the past—or been completely different altogether—and provides tips for searching for these ancestral name variations.

Earlier this year, I asked some Facebook friends to help with family research on surnames. This type of research can be tricky; some ancestral surnames had spelling variations—or were completely different names.

My friends answered with a range of responses: some reported minor spelling changes in their ancestors’ surnames, while others told of rather dramatic aberrations. After all, who would ever correlate the Bedenbaugh family with the name “Pitebag,” the Cal family with the name “Carroll,” or the Von Der Burg family with the name “Funderburg”!

My Question about Researching Surnames

This was my original Facebook request, with my friends’ replies summarized in the following chart:

I’m looking for ancestral surnames with many alternate spelling variations. For instance, Smith can be spelled Smyth or Smythe. Harrell can be Herrall, Horrall, Herald, etc. Also, looking for names of emigrants that were Americanized. Thanks in advance!

From Surname Variations / Comments
Cindi S. Amick: Emig, Emmick, Emmigh, Amig, Amik
Angela H. Ammons: Amonds, Emmons, Almons, Aman. Ammonds in Germany; Americanized to Ammons.
Jim B. Becherer: My “Becherer” ancestor changed it to Baker, although there are records where he was Becker and his tombstone is Bakar.
Cindi S. Bedenbaugh came from a Pitebag. That’s another one that has always been curious.
Victoria N. Calley, Colley, Collier, Callie, Cally, Colly
Judi C-T. Carroll, Carrell, Corall, Coral, Cal
Marge I. Cilley, Celley, Cealy, Seley, Sealey, Selley, so on, so on
Judy J-L. Cosky: Coskey, Kosky, Koskey, Koski, Koskie, Cuskie, Cusky—came across my ancestral name spelled all these ways on various documents.
Judy J-L. Deegan, Deagan, Dagen, Degan, and Deegen
Cindi S. Dominick, Dominy, Daming, and the oldest variation on this name that I could find: Durnermubhor?
Mary H-S. Ebling, Ebeling, Hebling, Eblinger
Sandy G. Finkenbinder: My grandmother was a Finkenbinder. It started in Germany as Fintboner, Finkboner, Finkbeiner, Finkenbeiner, Finkenbinder.
Cindi S. Fulmer, Folmer, Follmer, Volmer, Vollmer
Mary H-S. Harrell, Harel, Herald, Herrald, Horall, Horrell, Horald
Tammy H. Henney, Heney, Hanney, Hanny, Henny, Heaney, Haney…started as Hennig
Cindi S. Krell, Krelle, Crell, Crelle, Krehl, Kreil, Kreel, Creel, Crehl
Jim B. Langendoerfer: Within the space of two pages, the same census taker for the 1860 Census for Wayne County, PA, listed the four Langendoerfer brothers as: John Longdone, Winesdale (actually Wendell) Langerford, Jacob Longendoff, [and] Nicholas Longendiffer. He probably spoke to each of them on the same day along the same stretch of road. He never realized they were all saying the same name.[Cindi S.] It was a cold day and a little nip helped the census taker make his rounds…lol
Mary H-S. Miesse, Measey, Mease, Mise, Meise, spelled as Mȕsse in Germany
Leanne L. Ouderkerk: Ouderkirk, Oudekerk, Oudekirk, Oderkirk, Odekirk from Holland to New York mid 1600s
Monica C. Peats, Peets, Peetz, Pietz, Peet, Peat, Pyatt, Piatt…
Lisa F. Penny, Penney, Pinny, Pinney
Jessica R. Shultz, Schultz, Shulse, Shultze, Sholtz, Schulse…
Heidi N. Smith can also be an Americanized version of Schmidt, Schmeid, Schmitt, etc.
Mary H-S. Smith, Smyth, Smythe
Tammy H. Sweezey, Sweazy, Sweasey, Swazy, Swazey, Swasey, Sweezy, Swasy. From Germany via France.
Trish W. Von Der Burg family (Funderburg, Funderburgh, Funderburk, etc.)

So Which Surname Spelling Is Correct?

Although some genealogists may disagree, I believe the correct answer is: “most of them!”

Names morph, or change, on documents for a variety of reasons. Obvious reasons include ignorance (simply didn’t know the correct spelling) and sloppiness (typographical and handwriting issues)—but more complex reasons include other considerations.

In general, Old World names (given and last names) are, more often than not, converted from one spelling to another over time. Sometimes this evolves from alphabetical considerations, and other times from pronunciation or Anglicization issues.

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1) Alphabetical Conversions

Alphabetical conversions occur when a letter from a foreign alphabet doesn’t exist in English—such as ones with accents or umlauts (ȕ). An example from the chart is the name Miesse, which was spelled in Germany as Mȕsse. In 17th and 18th century church and civil records, this name is predominantly recorded with an umlaut, but English-speaking settlers had to convert the ȕ to “i,” “ea” and “ie.”

2) Surname Anglicization for Legal Reasons

Families might deliberately change or Anglicize the spellings of their surnames. Sometimes this occurs in daily practice (not formalized), but at other times during a court filing.

An example in the Sesniak family occurred when the name was legally changed from the traditional Polish spelling of Szczesniak. As my husband Tom explains:

On first try, nobody could pronounce or spell our last name, so my father had it shortened. Uniquely, he kept the same pronunciation by dropping two zs and a c. Although it broke all family tradition and upset the grandparents [who did not join in the court filing], it was the right thing to do. They were rooted to their Polish community, but it was only a small part of America. Although they never lost their ethnic pride, my parents’ family immediately went from being Polish to Polish American.

3) Name Pronunciation Dilemmas

Whenever a surname is pronounced differently from what its written form would suggest, expect to find spelling variations—such as this example from my Irish ancestry.

Our family Bible recorded the name as Hoowee—causing some Fisher family cousins to doubt its authenticity. After visiting Ireland, we discovered that the name is spelled both as Hoowe and Hoowee in records.

photo of the name "Hoowee" spelled in the Mathias Fisher family Bible

Photo: the name “Hoowee” spelled in the Mathias Fisher family Bible. Source: in the possession of Mary Harrell-Sesniak.

Why it was changed, we’ll never know—but after discovering it is often pronounced “Who ee” rather than “How,” my theory is that the version “Hoowee” was chosen because it better reflected the correct pronunciation.

4) Recording Considerations

When examining records, always consider who recorded the information.

Was there an enumerator or interviewer—or did a family member write the information in original handwriting?

If a spelling variation came from a family member, perhaps this person was not very literate. If it came from an enumerator, the name might have been written the way the enumerator heard it (phonetically or otherwise). Or perhaps a spelling was altered to reflect a personal cultural background.

Enumerator name variations are commonly reported by census researchers. (See the Langendoerfer example in the chart.)

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The Ellis Island Myth

One of the most written-about American experiences is the arrival of immigrants to Ellis Island—but one of the most incorrectly repeated statements is that names were changed (or Anglicized) upon arrival at Ellis Island.

photo of the Immigrant Building, Ellis Island, New York Harbor, c.1904

Photo: Immigrant Building, Ellis Island, New York Harbor, c.1904. Source: Underwood & Underwood; Library of Congress.

This widely repeated myth is easily dispelled by focusing on the steps undertaken when passengers arrived in the port.

During the interview process, immigrants’ names were verified to see that they matched the names recorded on ship manifests, which had been created in foreign, not American, ports. If there were exceptions, it would arise if an immigrant disagreed with the recorded spelling.

(For an in-depth explanation, see the New York Public Library article at www.nypl.org/blog/2013/07/02/name-changes-ellis-island,)

What Are Your Family Spelling Variations?

If you’ve only uncovered 1-2 spelling variations for your family surname, I hope this article will inspire you to find more—and to consider reasons how and why they changed.

Please share your surname spelling examples with us in the comments section.

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8 Genealogy Tips for Tracing Female Ancestry

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post, to celebrate March being National Women’s History Month, Mary provides practical tips to help you search for your female ancestors.

You know that age-old expression, What’s in a name? Well, it means absolutely nothing if you can’t find your female ancestor in any of the records—much less her maiden name.

Since the majority of “dead end” ancestor quests are for women, I’d like to share some overlooked avenues for breaking through those genealogy research brick walls, in honor of Women’s History Month.

photo of the B. F. Clark family

Library of Congress Photo: “Family of B. F. Clark, 219 N. 4th Street” www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ncl2004002862/PP/resource/

(Note: all of the newspaper articles used to illustrate this Blog post come from GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives.)

Tip #1: Know All of Your Ancestor’s Identities

This tip suggests that when searching the women in your family tree, you need to search for every name she ever went by, whether it be a formal first name (given name) or an informal nickname.

Most women, including myself, have multiple identities, depending upon the context.

Someone might have a pet name within the family, a formal name on a birth record, and might also gain a new name in a religious setting. And a woman might also go by one spelling as a child, and then choose to spell her name differently as an adult.

Nickname References and Examples

  • Abigail: Abbie, Abby, Gail, Nabby
  • Adeline: Addie, Aline, Dell, Della
  • Clementine: Clem, Tina
  • Henrietta: Etta, Henry, Etty
  • Margaret: Daisy, Greta, Madge, Maggie, Mamie, Marge, Margery, Peggy
  • Roberta: Berta, Bertie, Bobbie, Bobby, Robbie, Robby
article about Daisy Walker, Freeman newspaper article 20 March 1909

Freeman (Indianapolis, Indiana), 20 March 1909, page 4

Tip #2: Search All of Your Ancestor’s Titles

Titles aren’t always formal. They can be applied according to the role one takes in the community, and vary from situation to situation. Take, for example, Mary Jane Smith, a popular neighborhood mom in Atlanta. It’s possible some genealogical records only call her Mama Smith, whereas others might name her as Mary Jane Smith.

article about Mary Jane Smith, Marietta Journal newspaper article 4 June 1985

Marietta Journal (Marietta, Georgia), 4 June 1985, page 6

Ancestor Title examples:

  • Aunt, Aunty, Sis, Mama, Mother, Grandma, Grannie, Nana
  • Goodwife or Goody Jones (a Puritan title)
  • Miss America
  • Mrs. Peabody, Mrs. Juan Moreno
  • Nurse Miller
  • Widow Channing
article about the Puritans' use of the terms "goodman" and "goodwife," Heraldo de Brownsville newspaper article 4 July 1937

Heraldo de Brownsville (Brownsville, Texas), 4 July 1937, page 5

Tip #3: Search for Pseudonyms

If a woman wished to compete in a man’s world, she typically used a pseudonym.

Many people have heard of Louisa May Alcott, who wrote the beloved novel Little Women. However, few know that Louisa used the pseudonym A. M. Barnard to publish a series of “potboilers” that were thrilling Gothic stories.

book review of Louisa May Alcott's book "Plots and Counter-Plots," Dallas Morning News newspaper article 26 September 1976

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 26 September 1976, page 5aaa

Tip #4: Search by Her Initials

Many assume that men are more prone to be recorded by their initials, but it is common for women also, depending upon the circumstance.

Competing in a Man’s World

Female authors and artists very often use initials to compete in a man’s world.

Mary Jane (Olmstead) Stanton was a suffragette and author who appears in records under the name M. O. Stanton. In this 1890 newspaper article, written when Stanton was involved as a founding member of the Woman’s Press Association of the Pacific Coast, some women were referred to by their initials (Mrs. E. T. Y. Parkhurst), others by their own names (Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper), and one by her husband’s name (Mrs. Sam Davis).

Woman's Press Association, San Diego Union newspaper article 9 October 1890

San Diego Union (San Diego, California), 9 October 1890, page 2

Official Government Records

Official government records, such as patents, are sometimes recorded by the inventor’s initials—so if you search only by the obvious names, you’ll miss them.

  • The invention of the modern form of the rolling pin was patented by C. Deiner (Catherine Deiner) 17 March 1891 under U.S. Patent 448,476.

Tip #5: Incorporate Cultural Considerations in Searches

As a country of immigrants, we shouldn’t be surprised that name spellings vary from country to country, or that a bilingual family might interchange names according to the cultural setting. A woman might be called by her Old World name in the family setting, and recorded in other ancestry records by the more common American spelling.

For example, an ancestor named Mary might also be known as: Maria if your family came from Spain; from the Netherlands, as Marja or Maaike; and if your female progenitor was Welsh, she might also be recorded in records as Mair.

article about Marja Rufa, Duluth News-Tribune newspaper article 11 February 1909

Duluth News-Tribune (Duluth, Minnesota), 11 February 1909, page 3

Research Considerations

  • It can take several generations before Old World names are Americanized.
  • American and foreign versions were often interchanged, depending upon the cultural setting.
  • Names are typically recorded differently in English-speaking newspapers than in foreign-language editions.

Tip #7: Search Multiple Sources for Marriage Records

There are more ways to prove a marriage than almost any other event—but many sources for marriage evidence are overlooked. Some will not be found on the Web, so think creatively if you haven’t been able to locate a woman’s maiden name or marriage record.

Marriage Record Research Suggestions:

  • Bibles
  • Biographies
  • Cemetery Records
  • Church Books and Minister’s Records
  • Church Newsletters
  • Civil Registrations (courthouses)
  • Consent Affidavits
  • Courthouse Records
  • Death Certificates
  • Diaries
  • Divorce Decrees
  • Engagement Notices
  • Frakturs (form of artwork common with the Pennsylvania Dutch; see “Frakturs & Family Bibles Can Provide Proof of Marriage”)
  • Immigration Records
  • Journals
  • Land Records
  • Marriage Banns—or Publishing of the Banns (see “Understanding Terms Found in Historical Newspapers”)
  • Marriage Bonds
  • Marriage Certificates
  • Marriage Licenses
  • Marriage Permits
  • Naturalization Papers
  • Obituaries of Family Members
  • Orphan Court Records
  • Pension Files (widows)
  • Probate Records
  • Town Histories
  • Town Records (prior to civil registration)
  • Wedding Showers
  • Wills
article about marriage permits, Cincinnati Daily Gazette newspaper article 16 July 1878

Cincinnati Daily Gazette (Cincinnati, Ohio), 16 July 1878, page 3

Tip #8: Enter “Maiden Name” as a Search Engine Keyword

When I discovered this last genealogy research tip, it was a real “Aha” moment!

If you are looking for a maiden name, use “maiden name” or “maiden name was” as keywords in your search. Notice how many results were returned when I tried it in the GenealogyBank search box:

  • “maiden name”: over 125,000 results
  • “maiden name was”: almost 35,000 results

screenshot of GenealogyBank's search page for keywords "maiden name was"

Now incorporate those keywords with a name search, and see what you find! When I entered “Sarah Furman” “maiden name,” this record identifying her as a Strickland appeared—a fantastic research find listing her 260 offspring!

obituary for Sarah Furman, Boston Post-Boy newspaper article 22 February 1742

Boston Post-Boy (Boston, Massachusetts), 22 February 1742, page 3

Yes, finding all the genealogy records for your female ancestors can be tough, but employing these eight research tips—plus a little patience—might turn up some solid results for you in your family history searches.

Please share with us in the comments section any successes you’ve had from using these tips, and any additional methods you’ve used to find the females in your family tree.

New DNA Ancestry Study Reveals We’re All Related?!

It’s nice to think that everyone is related—but as genealogists we have known that would be difficult to prove. Now science is proving that theory is correct.

illustration for DNA study showing that everyone on the planet is related

A new DNA study shows that everyone alive on the earth today shares common ancestors only 1,000 to 2,000 years ago.

What?

“Group Hug!”

Wow—what is this study telling us?

It is saying that we are all related and that science can prove it.

How is that possible?

With every generation the number of our ancestors doubles. We have 4 grandparents; 8 great-grandparents; 16 2nd-great-grandparents, and so forth.

But as we go back in time the reverse is true: the number of people who were alive on the earth keeps growing smaller.

A new DNA study shows that all Europeans descend from the “same set of ancestors only a thousand years ago.” This theory has long been proposed, and it has commonly been said that “everyone” in Europe is a descendant of Charlemagne—or that every Englishman alive today has royal ancestry.

UC-Davis Professor Graham Coop says that “we now have concrete evidence from DNA data” that we are all related, and “it’s likely that everyone in the world is related over just the past few thousand years.” Read the entire article: Europeans All Related by Genetic Footprint Dating Back Only 1,000 Years Ago.

This interesting finding will revolutionize the way we view “family” in much the same way that the 1873/1874 Galton-Walton study changed our view of surnames 140 years ago.

graph illustrating the Galton-Walton surname extinction study

Credit: Wikipedia

Their pioneering work showed us that it was likely for a surname to go extinct after 12 to 20 generations. Assuming that each generation begins every 30 years, then 20 generations would extend back to the 1400s.

Click here to read their study “On the Probability of the Extinction of Families” published in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, volume 4, pages 138–144, printed in 1875.

This interesting genealogy study concluded that any given family would eventually no longer have male descendants in the male, surname line. They might have hundreds or thousands of female heirs, but no male descendants carrying the surname after 12 to 20 generations.

Their probability research showed that with each generation it was possible, even likely, that in the next generations there would be no male children born to a given household, or that the male children born would die without surviving male children. They concluded that it was likely after 12 to 20 generations—with wars, disease, or simply by chance—that there would be no more surviving males who could marry and pass down the family name. In genealogy-speak this is referred to as daughtering-out.

From the probability theories of 140 years ago to the more exact science of DNA today, we genealogists are getting a lot more to consider as we trace our family history.

Genealogy Search Tips for Ancestors’ Names: Less Is More

Beginning genealogists sometimes write us and say: “I put in the correct information for my search—full name including middle name, birth date, last known place of residence, etc.—everything I know about my ancestor, and yet I found no matching records. I did this search for a few other ancestors after I was told that there was no record of death. I have seen these names on the Social Security Death Index before. How come I can’t find that information now?”

Be flexible in your ancestor name search

What you want to do is limit your family searches to the basic, essential information, typing in just enough to find your target ancestor without getting back too many hits.

For example, your ancestor’s full name might have been John Henry Thompson—but the editors of the newspaper simply called him “Bif Thompson,” the name he was known by in the community for the past 30 years.

The Social Security Death Index has records for 4,266 persons with the first name “Buddy,” 25,947 records with the first name “Tommy,” and one record for a person named “Bif.”

Now Bif, Buddy and Tommy just might be the first name on their birth certificates, but it is more likely that these are a nickname or the diminutive form of their formal name (for example, “Tommy” for “Thomas.”)

When these people’s names are indexed there is no way to know that “Bif Thompson,” for example, was actually “John Henry Thompson.”

There are over 1.3 billion names in GenealogyBank, and we index them exactly as the names appeared in the original record. So you want to be flexible in how you search for a name.

Search using only your ancestor’s surname, limited by date range if necessary

Most surnames are unique. You will learn by genealogy research experience if a search using only a surname will generate too many hits. If it does, then limit your search by a range of years—for example: 1950–1975. That will usually enable you to pull up just enough search result hits so that you can locate your target ancestor.

picture of the GenealogyBank search form for surname "Starbird" between the years 1950-1975

GenealogyBank search form for surname “Starbird” between the years 1950-1975

By searching for all persons surnamed Starbird from 1950–1975, you will then find all of those records regardless of whether the editor included their first name, middle name, initials, or nicknames.

Give the surname search, limited by date ranges, a try.

List of Illinois Newspapers Online – 1818 to 2010

News: Latest list of Illinois newspapers live on GenealogyBank – 1818 to 2010.

Illinois Newspapers Online

Search backrun of Illinois historical newspapers here:
Search Illinois Obituaries here:

In today’s mail bag.

Q:The person I’m searching for is James Francis Fewster b.1867.
I know that there was an article published about him in the Baltimore Sun – 12 August 1889 – but I can’t find it.
What am I doing wrong?

When I browse GenealogyBank I find NOTHING – but I know this article exists.
Please help – thank you.


Great question!

Here’s what you want to do.

A: At the search box simply type in: Fewster in the surname box and 1889 in the date box. You’ll see that the article about him comes right up.

Notice that GenealogyBank highlights the search term: Fewster – making it easy to spot it on the page.

Why search that way?

The newspapers in GenealogyBank have been published for over 300 years. Editors have used various editorial styles for writing about individuals. So – keep the searching simple.

In this case – the newspaper wrote James Francis Fewster’s name: as: Jas. F. Fewster.

So – if you type in his full name – you will miss this article.

Remember the rule of WYSIWYG (pronounced /ˈwɪziwɪɡ/).
It is an acronym that stands for What You See Is What You Get.

In other words – what you type in the search box is what the computer will search for.

Adding extra terms: like the middle name can be very helpful in limiting your search results to zero in on your ancestor – but – remembering WYSIWYG – it can also work against you.

Fewster is a distinctive surname and like most surnames, it is not very common.

So – a tip: limit your search to simply the “surname”.

The search engine will then cut through the 672 million articles and zero in on just the ones mentioning a person named Fewster.

And in this example you want only the articles published in 1889.

So, put both of those facts together and Bingo.
There it is.

Tell us your success story.

We hear from GenealogyBank researchers all the time about their success in finding their family in historical newspapers and documents.

Do you have an interesting story to tell?
Would you be willing to be interviewed about it?

If so, please contact me directly at: TKemp@NewsBank.com

We want to hear from you.

Here is what others have told us:

Genealogy is my #1 hobby and profession. After hearing about your site, I signed up for a year. I have spent hours at libraries finding and copying obituaries and now some of them I can find just by typing in a name! I’m also finding the less common marriage notices and newspaper articles that I did not even think to search for because I did not know they existed until they came up on my screen!
Michael W. McCormick Adams County, PA, Enduring Legacy Genealogy, LLC

I have never heard of this site before, just saw it on Facebook and decided to check it out. This is my dream come true! In 5 minutes I’ve found more articles about my g-g-g grandfather than I ever thought possible! I’m sold….
Joan Morrison

[....] I found something very valuable on your site, [...] the story of my ggrandparents getting back together after 20 years being apart back in 1901-2 time. I believe it was in one of the TX papers, don’t know why it was in it, because my ggrandfather went out to Wisconsin to seek his fortune after marrying my ggrandmother in Nova Scotia. He left after 2 weeks marriage (she was already pregnant but didn’t know it, with my grandmother) and her parents did not like him, so they kept all his letters from her. He went to Massachusetts to see a friend and he asked about her and was told she lived not too far away, never married. He went to her house, and the rest is history as they say.
Margaret Sessions, Florida

I have been a subscriber since February 2008. I really like your site. I have been able to locate news articles about my ancestors in a matter of minutes. I had been looking for an article on my great grandfather’s death in a train accident for at least twenty years without any luck. I found it in about ten minutes searching GenealogyBank. THANK YOU!
Keith Parrish

Your site…I am delighted I found it. Such a wide variety from major city newspapers I’ve never found anywhere, especially with regard to the period of history in which I am most interested. Keep adding, and thank you, from a very much pleased subscriber.
George B. Parous, Pittsburgh, PA

I am a multi-state licensed private investigator that specializes in historical and genealogical research. THIS IS MY FAVORITE WEBSITE! Thanks so much!
DeeDee, Baton Rouge, LA

I subscribed to your site yesterday and forthwith found a very interesting 4th of July article concerning my Revolutionary War patriot ancestor. What a great find!
Nancie Brunk

I’ve been having a ball finding articles about my family. The biggest find for me…was discovering my gr-grandfather’s uncle in Congressional records as well as in newspapers. He had left home as a child and didn’t return home again until after his father died. It was reported in the newspapers that his elderly mother (my gr-gr-gr-grandmother!) almost went into shock after not seeing him for nearly 37 years. GenealogyBank gave me great insight into his life as a fisherman turned world traveler and the names of his children that he had with his Russian wife and his locations in Russia and Japan back in the 1800s! How cool is that??? :) I can’t wait to see what papers you will put up next. Keep up the great work!
Catherine “Casey” Zahn

Genealogybank is a fantastic resource. I literally have pulled 100s of newspaper articles in the past year from the 1780s to the 1920s that have helped me reconstruct families, and much eye opening information. Over this holiday I reconstructed another family using it and am now matching old photos back to these folks from over 100 years ago. Whereas most databases give you the vital records, GenealogyBank fills in the life stories. I have been getting a kick out of the horse trader and express man brothers and their stories that made the paper. They amused (and not so amused) the folks of Springfield, Mass, for several years in the Springfield Republican. Although I have not found photos of them yet, I have now correctly identified their sisters and some nieces and nephews after decades of not knowing for sure who the people were.
Ken Piper, Facebook

I recently learned my early ancestors traveled with a French group called The Ravel Family. They were a circus family but performed in theatres in New York City, Boston, Havana, New Orleans and other U.S. cities and countries. It turns out, The Ravel Family were world famous and had a great reputation. My 2nd great-grandfather, Leon Giavelli (stage name of Javelli) performed high wire acts that no others dared try…I found all of this out just from typing ‘Giavelli’ in your search engine; I have been very busy downloading newspaper articles and advertisements of my family and I owe it all to you!
Jane Laughon

I have never believed in paying for websites, but I finally broke down and subscribed to Genealogybank.com. I was thrilled to have found numerous articles on my family in the Philadelphia Inquirer (PA). Thanks for your great website.
Barbara Turner, Woodbury, NJ

I’m going for a two-year subscription, for the price may never be this good again – and with all the new resources being added, who knows how much more genealogy I will be able to access 18 months from now. Look how much new content went up in just six weeks!

I subscribed immediately. Within a short space of time I found an obit for great uncle John P. McCANNEY. My father’s namesake, he hid from me for years! I also found a news article for Aveline KUNTZMANN, my beloved’s 2nd great grandmother. It always puzzled me because she is not interred with KUNTZMANN family. Wow! She was lost when the LA BOURGOGNE sank in July 1898. I am going to be sleep deprived!
-Mary McCanney Finley

I found a letter written by my third great grandfather – the first thing I’ve ever seen written by the man. This letter was published in the Albany (New York) Argus in February of 1819. Wonderful!
Most of the content found at GenealogyBank is unique, not found on other sites. You may search it for free to see how many records there are for your family. If it looks good, sign-up to see the full records.
Honestly, if you have colonial ancestry, you can’t afford not to use this new resource. For the first time ever, you will be able to access newspapers and documents not previously indexed or in many cases, accessible at all. What makes this collection unique is that much of the data is from the American Antiquarian Society in Worchester, Massachusetts. This organization holds the earliest American printed materials, including newspapers – and now, for the first time, much of this material is accessible to you and I – all in digital format.
-Leland MeitzlerGenealogyBlog.com

Congratulations on a terrific website! I can’t leave it – I found several newspaper items I’ve not before seen and I still have more on the list to view. I’m one of your first subscribers.
Thank you so much for your dedication. It paid off tremendously. I’m going back now.
-Stefani Evans, CG

…they are the kind of resources that help you to not only use source documents to learn more about your ancestry, but they also help you to put ‘meat on the bones’ of your genealogy as you work to create a family history. Now, individuals have access to a wide array of great resources, which are centralized and available through a single subscription service. GenealogyBank is quickly becoming a major player in the field.
Internet Genealogy, January 2007

Your GenealogyBank is WONDERFUL. It’s a must for researching genealogists. I ran into info that I had searched and searched for years ago in libraries. And here it is now right at my fingertips! Amazing. It is well worth the price. Thank you for giving us all this information.
-Diana K. Bennett

I had a chance to ‘test drive’ the new individual GenealogyBank and was much impressed…. My best finds were in the Historical Documents collection – the American State Papers and the U.S. Serial Set. They yielded the most interesting and amazing information. I learned my 3rd great-grandfather, Solomon Dunagan was a constable, and testified at a voter fraud trial at Wayne County, Ky. Feb. 9, 1860. Solomon’s son, Thomas J. Dunagan testified at the same trial as a witness for the prosecution.
-Carllene Marek AncestreeSeekers, Chico (CA) Enterprise-Record

I almost fell off my chair last week, and not because I’m naturally clumsy. I was trying out the new GenealogyBank database … and saw a headline ‘Boy From Holy Land Working Way Through University of Texas.’ I clicked, and there was a picture of my grandfather. The slightly melodramatic 1924 Dallas Morning News article told how my Lebanese ancestor – who lived in an orphanage – respected his elders, studied into the wee hours and worked in a dairy all summer to earn money for college. Despite ‘lacking in dash and brilliance’ (in the reporter’s opinion), he was in the band, played football and won a debate contest.
I never met my grandfather, but he sounds a lot like my dad (except my dad is brilliant). It was a totally unexpected discovery, and just goes to show you can find information in surprising places.
-Diane Haddad, Newsletter Editor

Right off the bat, you’ll notice the servers respond quickly to return hits. In my first two searches I found 2 relevant entries for my ancestors. I expect this new website will be on my ‘must visit regularly’ lists.
-MyrtleDearMYRTLE.com

I subscribed today and have only stopped twice – once to eat a quick dinner and now for this note to thank you for this wonderful site. Already I have found 30 newspaper references in 1700-1800 for my ancestor in New York. I can’t thank you enough for putting this out there for us. What an accomplishment! I’m so glad it came along while I’m still here. I turned 87 this September. The program sent me hurrying along to finish my family history!
-Alice H. Williams

It has a lot more and to me it has been worth the money. You can take it a month at a time. I have already found so much info on one of my surnames and it will take me days to go through it all. I love the site.
-Barbara Nichols

GenealogyBank is the most customer-oriented genealogy website I’ve ever had the pleasure to use. Its constantly-expanding content is remarkably varied, immensely useful, and delightfully out-of-the-ordinary. A vast number of the documents included in ‘America’s Government Documents’ and ‘America’s Historical Books’ are not found in the genealogy databases I’ve seen. GenealogyBank’s features are easy to understand and use. The Help section is comprehensive and well-written. GenealogyBank clearly was created and structured with the needs of genealogists at all levels of research in mind.
-Joy Rich, M.L.S., Editor, Dorot: The Journal of the Jewish Genealogical Society (New York)

I have never believed in paying for websites, but I finally broke down and subscribed to Genealogybank.com. I was thrilled to have found numerous articles on my family in the Philadelphia (PA) Inquirer. Thanks for your great website.
-Barbara Turner Woodbury, NJ

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Genealogy Boot Camp – Quick Tips

Genealogy Boot Camp

Here are a few tips that every genealogist should know.

Using an online index

Researchers using an online index sometimes try to tell the computer everything they know about their deceased ancestor.

Assuming that the computer will sort through all of the facts and narrow down the hits to just their ancestor – they will type in the person’s full name, complete dates of birth/death, nicknames and any other facts that might be helpful.

Sometimes – less is more.

What you want to do is try multiple approaches as you interrogate the index.

1. Search on the full name: first name, middle name, surname.
Give it a try and see if it promptly gives you the results you want. This is particularly effective if the parts of the name are distinctive, uncommon words.

2. Not finding your guy? Then – try again. This time search on only the surname. Or – if the first name is distinctive – search on just the first name. 3. Notice that once you have made your initial search you may narrow down your search to only the obituaries, marriage notices or birth announcements.

Click on Obituaries and the computer will bring you only the 55 obituaries – instead of all 2,651 article results for “Starbird”.

This is a handy tool for speeding up your search.

4. Be careful not to narrow your search too much.

It is common for new researchers to only search the “local” newspaper published in the town where their ancestor once lived. That is a common mistake.

Newspapers routinely published information about people living far from the town where the newspaper was published.

For example – Chloe Starbird – wife of John Starbird died in Portland, Maine – but her obituary appeared in the Boston Semi-Weekly Advertiser (16 March 1822) – published in another state. Newspapers routinely published articles about people who lived in other counties; or other states. Their mandate was to fill the newspaper with news every day and to expand their circulation base. So – editors routinely added birth, marriage and death notices for individuals – providing their readers with the news they needed.

Notice that in this same example from the Boston Semi-Weekly Advertiser (16 March 1822) – that there are obituaries for individuals from Portland, Maine; Dublin, New Hampshire; Sturbridge; Shrewsbury; Bolton; New Braintree; Barre, Vermont; Zanesville, Ohio and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Think big – search all of GenealogyBank – then narrow your search by region, state or town.

Finding Nemo – and every Smith, Miller and Buckner in America

Whether you’re looking for William Nemo who was “shot and instantly killed about 10 o’clock last night” in Anaconda, Montana as reported in the 24 June 1903 Anaconda Standard …

or ….. Boyd C. Buckner who died July 4th in Maynardsville, Tennessee as reported in the 6 July 2008 Knoxville News Sentinel (TN) - you’ll find them – along with over one billion other people in GenealogyBank.

The US Census Bureau has released the list of the top 1,000 surnames in use in America today – as I did a spot check of each surname in GenealogyBank I found all of them represented.

There were 13,475 entries for the surname: Vang – the last name on the list and 5.7 million entries for the surname Smith – the first name on the list.

Go to GenealogyBank to find the obituary; death notice; birth announcement; wedding and engagement announcement for your relatives. It’s all in there.

Here is the complete list – what family name are you looking for?
1 SMITH
2 JOHNSON
3 WILLIAMS
4 JONES
5 BROWN
6 DAVIS
7 MILLER
8 WILSON
9 MOORE
10 TAYLOR
11 ANDERSON
12 THOMAS
13 JACKSON
14 WHITE
15 HARRIS
16 MARTIN
17 THOMPSON
18 GARCIA
19 MARTINEZ
20 ROBINSON
21 CLARK
22 RODRIGUEZ
23 LEWIS
24 LEE
25 WALKER
26 HALL
27 ALLEN
28 YOUNG
29 HERNANDEZ
30 KING
31 WRIGHT
32 LOPEZ
33 HILL
34 SCOTT
35 GREEN
36 ADAMS
37 BAKER
38 GONZALEZ
39 NELSON
40 CARTER
41 MITCHELL
42 PEREZ
43 ROBERTS
44 TURNER
45 PHILLIPS
46 CAMPBELL
47 PARKER
48 EVANS
49 EDWARDS
50 COLLINS
51 STEWART
52 SANCHEZ
53 MORRIS
54 ROGERS
55 REED
56 COOK
57 MORGAN
58 BELL
59 MURPHY
60 BAILEY
61 RIVERA
62 COOPER
63 RICHARDSON
64 COX
65 HOWARD
66 WARD
67 TORRES
68 PETERSON
69 GRAY
70 RAMIREZ
71 JAMES
72 WATSON
73 BROOKS
74 KELLY
75 SANDERS
76 PRICE
77 BENNETT
78 WOOD
79 BARNES
80 ROSS
81 HENDERSON
82 COLEMAN
83 JENKINS
84 PERRY
85 POWELL
86 LONG
87 PATTERSON
88 HUGHES
89 FLORES
90 WASHINGTON
91 BUTLER
92 SIMMONS
93 FOSTER
94 GONZALES
95 BRYANT
96 ALEXANDER
97 RUSSELL
98 GRIFFIN
99 DIAZ
100 HAYES
101 MYERS
102 FORD
103 HAMILTON
104 GRAHAM
105 SULLIVAN
106 WALLACE
107 WOODS
108 COLE
109 WEST
110 JORDAN
111 OWENS
112 REYNOLDS
113 FISHER
114 ELLIS
115 HARRISON
116 GIBSON
117 MCDONALD
118 CRUZ
119 MARSHALL
120 ORTIZ
121 GOMEZ
122 MURRAY
123 FREEMAN
124 WELLS
125 WEBB
126 SIMPSON
127 STEVENS
128 TUCKER
129 PORTER
130 HUNTER
131 HICKS
132 CRAWFORD
133 HENRY
134 BOYD
135 MASON
136 MORALES
137 KENNEDY
138 WARREN
139 DIXON
140 RAMOS
141 REYES
142 BURNS
143 GORDON
144 SHAW
145 HOLMES
146 RICE
147 ROBERTSON
148 HUNT
149 BLACK
150 DANIELS
151 PALMER
152 MILLS
153 NICHOLS
154 GRANT
155 KNIGHT
156 FERGUSON
157 ROSE
158 STONE
159 HAWKINS
160 DUNN
161 PERKINS
162 HUDSON
163 SPENCER
164 GARDNER
165 STEPHENS
166 PAYNE
167 PIERCE
168 BERRY
169 MATTHEWS
170 ARNOLD
171 WAGNER
172 WILLIS
173 RAY
174 WATKINS
175 OLSON
176 CARROLL
177 DUNCAN
178 SNYDER
179 HART
180 CUNNINGHAM
181 BRADLEY
182 LANE
183 ANDREWS
184 RUIZ
185 HARPER
186 FOX
187 RILEY
188 ARMSTRONG
189 CARPENTER
190 WEAVER
191 GREENE
192 LAWRENCE
193 ELLIOTT
194 CHAVEZ
195 SIMS
196 AUSTIN
197 PETERS
198 KELLEY
199 FRANKLIN
200 LAWSON
201 FIELDS
202 GUTIERREZ
203 RYAN
204 SCHMIDT
205 CARR
206 VASQUEZ
207 CASTILLO
208 WHEELER
209 CHAPMAN
210 OLIVER
211 MONTGOMERY
212 RICHARDS
213 WILLIAMSON
214 JOHNSTON
215 BANKS
216 MEYER
217 BISHOP
218 MCCOY
219 HOWELL
220 ALVAREZ
221 MORRISON
222 HANSEN
223 FERNANDEZ
224 GARZA
225 HARVEY
226 LITTLE
227 BURTON
228 STANLEY
229 NGUYEN
230 GEORGE
231 JACOBS
232 REID
233 KIM
234 FULLER
235 LYNCH
236 DEAN
237 GILBERT
238 GARRETT
239 ROMERO
240 WELCH
241 LARSON
242 FRAZIER
243 BURKE
244 HANSON
245 DAY
246 MENDOZA
247 MORENO
248 BOWMAN
249 MEDINA
250 FOWLER
251 BREWER
252 HOFFMAN
253 CARLSON
254 SILVA
255 PEARSON
256 HOLLAND
257 DOUGLAS
258 FLEMING
259 JENSEN
260 VARGAS
261 BYRD
262 DAVIDSON
263 HOPKINS
264 MAY
265 TERRY
266 HERRERA
267 WADE
268 SOTO
269 WALTERS
270 CURTIS
271 NEAL
272 CALDWELL
273 LOWE
274 JENNINGS
275 BARNETT
276 GRAVES
277 JIMENEZ
278 HORTON
279 SHELTON
280 BARRETT
281 OBRIEN
282 CASTRO
283 SUTTON
284 GREGORY
285 MCKINNEY
286 LUCAS
287 MILES
288 CRAIG
289 RODRIQUEZ
290 CHAMBERS
291 HOLT
292 LAMBERT
293 FLETCHER
294 WATTS
295 BATES
296 HALE
297 RHODES
298 PENA
299 BECK
300 NEWMAN
301 HAYNES
302 MCDANIEL
303 MENDEZ
304 BUSH
305 VAUGHN
306 PARKS
307 DAWSON
308 SANTIAGO
309 NORRIS
310 HARDY
311 LOVE
312 STEELE
313 CURRY
314 POWERS
315 SCHULTZ
316 BARKER
317 GUZMAN
318 PAGE
319 MUNOZ
320 BALL
321 KELLER
322 CHANDLER
323 WEBER
324 LEONARD
325 WALSH
326 LYONS
327 RAMSEY
328 WOLFE
329 SCHNEIDER
330 MULLINS
331 BENSON
332 SHARP
333 BOWEN
334 DANIEL
335 BARBER
336 CUMMINGS
337 HINES
338 BALDWIN
339 GRIFFITH
340 VALDEZ
341 HUBBARD
342 SALAZAR
343 REEVES
344 WARNER
345 STEVENSON
346 BURGESS
347 SANTOS
348 TATE
349 CROSS
350 GARNER
351 MANN
352 MACK
353 MOSS
354 THORNTON
355 DENNIS
356 MCGEE
357 FARMER
358 DELGADO
359 AGUILAR
360 VEGA
361 GLOVER
362 MANNING
363 COHEN
364 HARMON
365 RODGERS
366 ROBBINS
367 NEWTON
368 TODD
369 BLAIR
370 HIGGINS
371 INGRAM
372 REESE
373 CANNON
374 STRICKLAND
375 TOWNSEND
376 POTTER
377 GOODWIN
378 WALTON
379 ROWE
380 HAMPTON
381 ORTEGA
382 PATTON
383 SWANSON
384 JOSEPH
385 FRANCIS
386 GOODMAN
387 MALDONADO
388 YATES
389 BECKER
390 ERICKSON
391 HODGES
392 RIOS
393 CONNER
394 ADKINS
395 WEBSTER
396 NORMAN
397 MALONE
398 HAMMOND
399 FLOWERS
400 COBB
401 MOODY
402 QUINN
403 BLAKE
404 MAXWELL
405 POPE
406 FLOYD
407 OSBORNE
408 PAUL
409 MCCARTHY
410 GUERRERO
411 LINDSEY
412 ESTRADA
413 SANDOVAL
414 GIBBS
415 TYLER
416 GROSS
417 FITZGERALD
418 STOKES
419 DOYLE
420 SHERMAN
421 SAUNDERS
422 WISE
423 COLON
424 GILL
425 ALVARADO
426 GREER
427 PADILLA
428 SIMON
429 WATERS
430 NUNEZ
431 BALLARD
432 SCHWARTZ
433 MCBRIDE
434 HOUSTON
435 CHRISTENSEN
436 KLEIN
437 PRATT
438 BRIGGS
439 PARSONS
440 MCLAUGHLIN
441 ZIMMERMAN
442 FRENCH
443 BUCHANAN
444 MORAN
445 COPELAND
446 ROY
447 PITTMAN
448 BRADY
449 MCCORMICK
450 HOLLOWAY
451 BROCK
452 POOLE
453 FRANK
454 LOGAN
455 OWEN
456 BASS
457 MARSH
458 DRAKE
459 WONG
460 JEFFERSON
461 PARK
462 MORTON
463 ABBOTT
464 SPARKS
465 PATRICK
466 NORTON
467 HUFF
468 CLAYTON
469 MASSEY
470 LLOYD
471 FIGUEROA
472 CARSON
473 BOWERS
474 ROBERSON
475 BARTON
476 TRAN
477 LAMB
478 HARRINGTON
479 CASEY
480 BOONE
481 CORTEZ
482 CLARKE
483 MATHIS
484 SINGLETON
485 WILKINS
486 CAIN
487 BRYAN
488 UNDERWOOD
489 HOGAN
490 MCKENZIE
491 COLLIER
492 LUNA
493 PHELPS
494 MCGUIRE
495 ALLISON
496 BRIDGES
497 WILKERSON
498 NASH
499 SUMMERS
500 ATKINS
501 WILCOX
502 PITTS
503 CONLEY
504 MARQUEZ
505 BURNETT
506 RICHARD
507 COCHRAN
508 CHASE
509 DAVENPORT
510 HOOD
511 GATES
512 CLAY
513 AYALA
514 SAWYER
515 ROMAN
516 VAZQUEZ
517 DICKERSON
518 HODGE
519 ACOSTA
520 FLYNN
521 ESPINOZA
522 NICHOLSON
523 MONROE
524 WOLF
525 MORROW
526 KIRK
527 RANDALL
528 ANTHONY
529 WHITAKER
530 OCONNOR
531 SKINNER
532 WARE
533 MOLINA
534 KIRBY
535 HUFFMAN
536 BRADFORD
537 CHARLES
538 GILMORE
539 DOMINGUEZ
540 ONEAL
541 BRUCE
542 LANG
543 COMBS
544 KRAMER
545 HEATH
546 HANCOCK
547 GALLAGHER
548 GAINES
549 SHAFFER
550 SHORT
551 WIGGINS
552 MATHEWS
553 MCCLAIN
554 FISCHER
555 WALL
556 SMALL
557 MELTON
558 HENSLEY
559 BOND
560 DYER
561 CAMERON
562 GRIMES
563 CONTRERAS
564 CHRISTIAN
565 WYATT
566 BAXTER
567 SNOW
568 MOSLEY
569 SHEPHERD
570 LARSEN
571 HOOVER
572 BEASLEY
573 GLENN
574 PETERSEN
575 WHITEHEAD
576 MEYERS
577 KEITH
578 GARRISON
579 VINCENT
580 SHIELDS
581 HORN
582 SAVAGE
583 OLSEN
584 SCHROEDER
585 HARTMAN
586 WOODARD
587 MUELLER
588 KEMP
589 DELEON
590 BOOTH
591 PATEL
592 CALHOUN
593 WILEY
594 EATON
595 CLINE
596 NAVARRO
597 HARRELL
598 LESTER
599 HUMPHREY
600 PARRISH
601 DURAN
602 HUTCHINSON
603 HESS
604 DORSEY
605 BULLOCK
606 ROBLES
607 BEARD
608 DALTON
609 AVILA
610 VANCE
611 RICH
612 BLACKWELL
613 YORK
614 JOHNS
615 BLANKENSHIP
616 TREVINO
617 SALINAS
618 CAMPOS
619 PRUITT
620 MOSES
621 CALLAHAN
622 GOLDEN
623 MONTOYA
624 HARDIN
625 GUERRA
626 MCDOWELL
627 AREY
628 STAFFORD
629 GALLEGOS
630 HENSON
631 WILKINSON
632 BOOKER
633 MERRITT
634 MIRANDA
635 ATKINSON
636 ORR
637 DECKER
638 HOBBS
639 PRESTON
640 TANNER
641 KNOX
642 PACHECO
643 STEPHENSON
644 GLASS
645 ROJAS
646 SERRANO
647 MARKS
648 HICKMAN
649 ENGLISH
650 SWEENEY
651 STRONG
652 PRINCE
653 MCCLURE
654 CONWAY
655 WALTER
656 ROTH
657 MAYNARD
658 FARRELL
659 LOWERY
660 HURST
661 NIXON
662 WEISS
663 TRUJILLO
664 ELLISON
665 SLOAN
666 JUAREZ
667 WINTERS
668 MCLEAN
669 RANDOLPH
670 LEON
671 BOYER
672 VILLARREAL
673 MCCALL
674 GENTRY
675 CARRILLO
676 KENT
677 AYERS
678 LARA
679 SHANNON
680 SEXTON
681 PACE
682 HULL
683 LEBLANC
684 BROWNING
685 VELASQUEZ
686 LEACH
687 CHANG
688 HOUSE
689 SELLERS
690 HERRING
691 NOBLE
692 FOLEY
693 BARTLETT
694 MERCADO
695 LANDRY
696 DURHAM
697 WALLS
698 BARR
699 MCKEE
700 BAUER
701 RIVERS
702 EVERETT
703 BRADSHAW
704 PUGH
705 VELEZ
706 RUSH
707 ESTES
708 DODSON
709 MORSE
710 SHEPPARD
711 WEEKS
712 CAMACHO
713 BEAN
714 BARRON
715 LIVINGSTON
716 MIDDLETON
717 SPEARS
718 BRANCH
719 BLEVINS
720 CHEN
721 KERR
722 MCCONNELL
723 HATFIELD
724 HARDING
725 ASHLEY
726 SOLIS
727 HERMAN
728 FROST
729 GILES
730 BLACKBURN
731 WILLIAM
732 PENNINGTON
733 WOODWARD
734 FINLEY
735 MCINTOSH
736 KOCH
737 BEST
738 SOLOMON
739 MCCULLOUGH
740 DUDLEY
741 NOLAN
742 BLANCHARD
743 RIVAS
744 BRENNAN
745 MEJIA
746 KANE
747 BENTON
748 JOYCE
749 BUCKLEY
750 HALEY
751 VALENTINE
752 MADDOX
753 RUSSO
754 MCKNIGHT
755 BUCK
756 MOON
757 MCMILLAN
758 CROSBY
759 BERG
760 DOTSON
761 MAYS
762 ROACH
763 CHURCH
764 CHAN
765 RICHMOND
766 MEADOWS
767 FAULKNER
768 ONEILL
769 KNAPP
770 KLINE
771 BARRY
772 OCHOA
773 JACOBSON
774 GAY
775 AVERY
776 HENDRICKS
777 HORNE
778 SHEPARD
779 HEBERT
780 CHERRY
781 CARDENAS
782 MCINTYRE
783 WHITNEY
784 WALLER
785 HOLMAN
786 DONALDSON
787 CANTU
788 TERRELL
789 MORIN
790 GILLESPIE
791 FUENTES
792 TILLMAN
793 SANFORD
794 BENTLEY
795 PECK
796 KEY
797 SALAS
798 ROLLINS
799 GAMBLE
800 DICKSON
801 BATTLE
802 SANTANA
803 CABRERA
804 CERVANTES
805 HOWE
806 HINTON
807 HURLEY
808 SPENCE
809 ZAMORA
810 YANG
811 MCNEIL
812 SUAREZ
813 CASE
814 PETTY
815 GOULD
816 MCFARLAND
817 SAMPSON
818 CARVER
819 BRAY
820 ROSARIO
821 MACDONALD
822 STOUT
823 HESTER
824 MELENDEZ
825 DILLON
826 FARLEY
827 HOPPER
828 GALLOWAY
829 POTTS
830 BERNARD
831 JOYNER
832 STEIN
833 AGUIRRE
834 OSBORN
835 MERCER
836 BENDER
837 FRANCO
838 ROWLAND
839 SYKES
840 BENJAMIN
841 TRAVIS
842 PICKETT
843 CRANE
844 SEARS
845 MAYO
846 DUNLAP
847 HAYDEN
848 WILDER
849 MCKAY
850 COFFEY
851 MCCARTY
852 EWING
853 COOLEY
854 VAUGHAN
855 BONNER
856 COTTON
857 HOLDER
858 STARK
859 FERRELL
860 CANTRELL
861 FULTON
862 LYNN
863 LOTT
864 CALDERON
865 ROSA
866 POLLARD
867 HOOPER
868 BURCH
869 MULLEN
870 FRY
871 RIDDLE
872 LEVY
873 DAVID
874 DUKE
875 ODONNELL
876 GUY
877 MICHAEL
878 BRITT
879 FREDERICK
880 DAUGHERTY
881 BERGER
882 DILLARD
883 ALSTON
884 JARVIS
885 FRYE
886 RIGGS
887 CHANEY
888 ODOM
889 DUFFY
890 FITZPATRICK
891 VALENZUELA
892 MERRILL
893 MAYER
894 ALFORD
895 MCPHERSON
896 ACEVEDO
897 DONOVAN
898 BARRERA
899 ALBERT
900 COTE
901 REILLY
902 COMPTON
903 RAYMOND
904 MOONEY
905 MCGOWAN
906 CRAFT
907 CLEVELAND
908 CLEMONS
909 WYNN
910 NIELSEN
911 BAIRD
912 STANTON
913 SNIDER
914 ROSALES
915 BRIGHT
916 WITT
917 STUART
918 HAYS
919 HOLDEN
920 RUTLEDGE
921 KINNEY
922 CLEMENTS
923 CASTANEDA
924 SLATER
925 HAHN
926 EMERSON
927 CONRAD
928 BURKS
929 DELANEY
930 PATE
931 LANCASTER
932 SWEET
933 JUSTICE
934 TYSON
935 SHARPE
936 WHITFIELD
937 TALLEY
938 MACIAS
939 IRWIN
940 BURRIS
941 RATLIFF
942 MCCRAY
943 MADDEN
944 KAUFMAN
945 BEACH
946 GOFF
947 CASH
948 BOLTON
949 MCFADDEN
950 LEVINE
951 GOOD
952 BYERS
953 KIRKLAND
954 KIDD
955 WORKMAN
956 CARNEY
957 DALE
958 MCLEOD
959 HOLCOMB
960 ENGLAND
961 FINCH
962 HEAD
963 BURT
964 HENDRIX
965 SOSA
966 HANEY
967 FRANKS
968 SARGENT
969 NIEVES
970 DOWNS
971 RASMUSSEN
972 BIRD
973 HEWITT
974 LINDSAY
975 LE
976 FOREMAN
977 VALENCIA
978 ONEIL
979 DELACRUZ
980 VINSON
981 DEJESUS
982 HYDE
983 FORBES
984 GILLIAM
985 GUTHRIE
986 WOOTEN
987 HUBER
988 BARLOW
989 BOYLE
990 MCMAHON
991 BUCKNER
992 ROCHA
993 PUCKETT
994 LANGLEY
995 KNOWLES
996 COOKE
997 VELAZQUEZ
998 WHITLEY
999 NOEL
1000 VANG