History of the Plymouth Rock Landmark

Plymouth Rock, a large boulder on the edge of Plymouth Harbor, Massachusetts, is traditionally identified as the place where the Pilgrims first stepped ashore from the Mayflower in 1620 to found Plymouth Colony.

photo of Plymouth Rock

Credit: Wikipedia

Plymouth Rock has been visited, celebrated, and written about for centuries.

In 1835 Alexis de Tocqueville, a French author traveling throughout the United States, wrote:

“This Rock has become an object of veneration in the United States. I have seen bits of it carefully preserved in several towns in the Union. Does this sufficiently show that all human power and greatness is in the soul of man? Here is a stone which the feet of a few outcasts pressed for an instant; and the stone becomes famous; it is treasured by a great nation; its very dust is shared as a relic.”

Articles about Plymouth Rock have appeared in America’s newspapers since the early days of the nation.

Here is a verse from an early poem about Plymouth Rock written by Thomas Paine (1737-1809), published in 1799.

poem about Plymouth Rock by Thomas Paine, Federal Observer newspaper article 4 January 1799

Federal Observer (Portsmouth, New Hampshire), 4 January 1799, page 4

GenealogyBank has many newspaper articles reporting on Plymouth Rock celebrations over the years, including the 1820 celebration of the 200th anniversary of the Pilgrims’ landing.

Celebration of the Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth, New England Palladium newspaper article 25 December 1800

New England Palladium (Boston, Massachusetts), 25 December 1800, page 4

Researching Your Pilgrim Ancestry from Mayflower Ship Passengers

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post—just in time for Thanksgiving—Mary searches old newspapers to trace ancestry all the way back to the Pilgrims, who crossed the Atlantic Ocean on board the Mayflower in 1620 for a fresh start in the New World.

Although endlessly rewarding, it is true that tracing ancestry is a time-consuming process requiring much patience—especially if one wishes to connect to the Mayflower passengers, those 102 Pilgrims who sailed from Leiden, Holland, in September 1620 bound for the New World—anchoring off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in November 1620.

Painting: Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor, William Halsall, 1882

Painting: Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor, William Halsall, 1882. Credit: Pilgrim Hall Museum & Wikipedia.

Tragically, only half the Plymouth Rock settlers survived their first winter in the New World—and if any are your progenitors, you could conceivably be required to compile from 12-18 generations of documentary evidence to trace your Pilgrim ancestry and prove you are a descendant. Fortunately, there are many ways to research the Mayflower voyage and the Pilgrims, even if you can’t visit Leiden or Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, Massachusetts (although please put these stops on your genealogical travel shortlist).

I traveled to Leiden, Holland, several years ago to conduct first-hand research on my Mayflower Pilgrim ancestry, and found this Dutch marriage record for future Mayflower ship passengers Isaac Allerton and Mary Norris from 1611.

marriage certificate for future Mayflower passengers Isaac Allerton and Mary Norris, 1611

Marriage certificate for future Mayflower passengers Isaac Allerton and Mary Norris, 1611, from the collection of Mary Harrell-Sesniak

However, as I say, you don’t need to travel to research your Mayflower Pilgrim ancestry—you can do it from the comfort of your own home, relying on your computer and the Internet, using several helpful websites and having access to online historical newspapers.

Common genealogical advice suggests that you start your family history research with yourself and work backwards to prove ancestry. However, with Mayflower genealogy research, you might want to work “down the research ladder,” instead of up, as it could very well save you a few steps.

Approved List of Mayflower Ship Passengers

Start at the top of your family tree by looking for surnames matching Mayflower passengers, shown on the accepted list of eligible ancestors compiled by Pilgrim lineage societies, most notably the General Society of Mayflower Descendants (www.themayflowersociety.com/).

John Alden Bartholomew Allerton Isaac Allerton
Mary (Norris) Allerton Mary Allerton Remember Allerton
Elinor Billington Francis Billington John Billington
William Bradford Love Brewster Mary Brewster
William Brewster Peter Browne James Chilton
Mrs. James Chilton Mary Chilton Francis Cooke
John Cooke Edward Doty Francis Eaton
Samuel Eaton Sarah Eaton Moses Fletcher
Edward Fuller Mrs. Edward Fuller Samuel Fuller
Samuel Fuller (son of Edward) Constance Hopkins Elizabeth (Fisher) Hopkins
Giles Hopkins Stephen Hopkins John Howland
Richard More Priscilla Mullins William Mullins
Degory Priest Joseph Rogers Thomas Rogers
Henry Samson George Soule Myles Standish
Elizabeth Tilley John Tilley Joan (Hurst) Tilley
Richard Warren Peregrine White Resolved White
Susanna White William White Edward Winslow

Publications by the General Society of Mayflower Descendants

And if that surname research strategy fails, research Mayflower descendants to the fifth generation to try and find a match to your family. Many publications exist, including the famous pink or gray Pilgrim lineage books published by the General Society of Mayflower Descendants—many of which are available at libraries. As accepted references, these Society publications allow you to bypass submitting proofs for any Mayflower descendant they’ve already established.

photo of publications from the General Society of Mayflower Descendants

Credit: from the library of Mary Harrell-Sesniak

The silver books trace the first five generations of Mayflower descendants.

The smaller pink books are Mayflower Families in Progress (MFIP), and are produced as new information becomes available.

Newspaper Evidence for Peregrine (or Peregrin) White and His Descendants

An extraordinary amount of newspaper articles and obituaries mentioning Mayflower ancestry exist in GenealogyBank’s historical newspaper archives.

Although not my Mayflower ancestor, I’m fascinated by Peregrine White. He was the son of William and Susanna White, who crossed the ocean on the Mayflower with his older brother Resolved. Susanna was pregnant with Peregrine during the Atlantic crossing, and he became the first Plymouth Colony baby of English ancestry when he was born on 20 November 1620 on board the Mayflower in Provincetown Harbor. (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peregrine_White.)

After William White died—as so many did, during the Colony’s first winter—Susanna married widower Edward Winslow, of whom much is written. After reaching manhood, Peregrine married Sarah Bassett, and if you are one of their descendants, you have a multitude of cousins.

One of your relatives is their grandson George Young (1689-1771), son of their daughter Sarah White (1663-1755) and Thomas Young (1663-1732).

George Young’s lineage was noted in this 1771 obituary.

death notice for George Young, Boston Post-Boy newspaper article 13 May 1771

Boston Post-Boy (Boston, Massachusetts), 13 May 1771, page 3

Being such a small colony of settlers, the Mayflower Pilgrim’s children intermarried. As reported in this 1821 newspaper article, John Alden was a descendant of his grandfather by the same name—and also of Peregrine White, via his grandmother. He is thought to have married twice, first to Lydia Lazell and later to Rebecca Weston, although neither of his wives are mentioned in this obituary. Note how many of John Alden’s descendants were living when he died at the ripe old age of 103.

obituary for John Alden, Daily National Intelligencer newspaper article 12 April 1821

Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), 12 April 1821, page 3

Elder James White, who founded the Seventh Day Adventist Church in Battle Creek, Michigan, was another direct descendant of the Mayflower Pilgrims. His religious affiliation and his Mayflower ancestry were reported in this 1881 newspaper obituary.

obituary for Elder James White, Kalamazoo Gazette newspaper article 9 August 1881

Kalamazoo Gazette (Kalamazoo, Michigan), 9 August 1881, page 1

Reporting Trend in Pilgrim Descendants’ Obituaries

Do you notice a trend in these obituaries? The importance of being a descendant of a Mayflower passenger tends to overshadow all other aspects of an individual’s life!

For example, Ellen Gould Harmon was the spouse of Elder James White—and her obituary from 1915 makes more notice of his roots than her own.

obituary for Ellen White, Jackson Citizen Patriot newspaper article 17 July 1915

Jackson Citizen Patriot (Jackson, Michigan), 17 July 1915, page 1

Are You My Mayflower Cousin?

Although I have not located Peregrine White ancestry in my own family tree, if you trace to any of the following Mayflower passengers, then you and I are cousins:

  • William Brewster and Mary (maiden name unknown)
  • Giles Hopkins and Catherine Whelden
  • Stephen Hopkins and Mary (maiden name unknown)
  • John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley
photo of the gravesite of Giles Hopkins

Photo: Grave of Giles Hopkins, Cove Burying Ground (Eastham, Massachusetts). Credit: Mary Harrell-Sesniak.

We are in good company. By 1909, one writer’s conservative estimate calculated that by the 10th generation, any of the Mayflower ship passengers could have had at least 3,500,000 descendants! Since most Mayflower descendants are now of the 13th, 14th, 15th or 16th generation, that number has skyrocketed.

The rising number of Mayflower Pilgrim descendants is reported in this 1909 newspaper article.

article about descendants of the Mayflower Pilgrims, Duluth News-Tribune newspaper article 18 December 1909

Duluth News-Tribune (Duluth, Minnesota), 18 December 1909, page 8

If you think you are a Mayflower ship passenger descendant, this article from the New England Historic Genealogical Society may be of interest:

“The Society of Mayflower Descendants: Who they are, where to find them, how to apply”

http://www.americanancestors.org/the-society-of-mayflower-descendants-pt1/

For tips on how to research your Mayflower genealogy using GenealogyBank visit: http://blog.genealogybank.com/tag/mayflower

Have you traced your ancestry back to one of the Mayflower ship passengers? If so, please tell us about it in the comments section. We’d love to know who your Mayflower ancestors are.

You Want to Be Prepared as Thanksgiving Approaches

Now that it is November, the holidays will be here before you know it.

You want to prepare now.

That’s what Rose Briggs did. Her hard work set the tone for how Thanksgiving has been celebrated since 1921.

Rose’s Thanksgiving preparation is just one of the many great stories in GenealogyBank’s online newspaper archives.

collage of a newspaper photograph of Rose Briggs and an article about a 1776 Thanksgiving proclamation

Collage of a newspaper photograph of Rose Briggs and an article about a 1776 Thanksgiving proclamation

Rose Thornton Briggs (1893-1981) was always prepared for every Thanksgiving. She made the costumes and saw to the details of the annual “Pilgrim March” which was held on “every Friday in August” starting in 1921. In 1941 she added the tradition of also marching on Thanksgiving Day. Up through 1971 she participated in every one of those marches.

The Pilgrim March consists of 52 marchers, all in costume—each one representing a different Mayflower passenger that survived that first winter. All of the costumes were designed by Miss Briggs. She researched and prepared the costumes, working to make them as historically accurate as possible.

GenealogyBank’s newspaper archives let you read about the accomplishments of this energetic woman, who made a lasting contribution and changed the way Thanksgiving is celebrated annually in Plymouth, Massachusetts. The following newspaper article was published in the Boston Herald a decade before Rose Briggs passed away.

Rose Briggs, 78, Keeps Settlers' Heritage Alive, Boston Herald newspaper article 25 November 1971

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 25 November 1971, page 60

This Thanksgiving, let’s remember to also give thanks for Rose Thornton Briggs’ vision, creativity and hard work.

You can find other great Thanksgiving stories in GenealogyBank’s online newspapers.

For example, a “Thanksgiving proclamation” was published in the New-England Chronicle just months after the Declaration of Independence was issued and while the country was at war with England.

Proclamation for a Day of Public Thanksgiving and Prayer, New-England Chronicle newspaper article 28 November 1776

New-England Chronicle (Boston, Massachusetts), 28 November 1776, page 2

The proclamation ended with the stirring words:

God Save the United States of America! New-England Chronicle newspaper article 28 November 1776

New-England Chronicle (Boston, Massachusetts), 28 November 1776, page 2

Researching Genealogy with Military Records and Lists in Newspapers

Researching Genealogy with Military Records and Lists in Newspapers
From the Revolutionary War to Pearl Harbor to Iraq, newspapers are a valuable resource for researching your military ancestry and learning about the history of war in the United States. Newspapers have been a dependable source of information that Americans have relied upon throughout this nation’s history.

U.S. War History in Newspapers
This was vividly demonstrated after Dec. 7, 1941, when Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor launched the U.S. into World War II. The next day Congress declared war on Japan—and Americans were riveted by the bold headlines and news stories splashed across the front pages of the nation’s newspapers.

Omaha World Journal (Omaha, Nebraska), 8 December 1941, page 1.
Newspapers tell us what happened every day of our ancestors’ lives.
From the Revolutionary War to the wars in the Middle East, newspapers let us read about our ancestors’ participation in the nation’s conflicts—and what the country as a whole went through. We volunteered, we were enlisted in the U.S. military through the draft—and when we didn’t register for the draft, the government issued “slacker lists” to encourage full participation in the war.

U.S. Military Draft Lists
Military draft lists were published in newspapers, like this one printed in the 26 July 1917 issue of the Perry Republican (Perry, Oklahoma), page 1. It is a census of the men living in Noble County, Oklahoma, in 1917—a valuable genealogical resource to help with your family history research.
Similar lists were the “slacker lists” or “draft dodger lists”: listings of those persons that tried to evade the draft. After World War I the United States War Department issued lists of those men that did not register with the military draft. These lists were widely published in newspapers across the country, like this example from the Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, New Jersey), 25 May 1921, page 1.
From the declaration of war through obituaries published decades after the conflict ended, newspapers have been a dependable source of information about our ancestors and their participation in the United States Armed Forces. Newspapers reported on the battles and covered the stories of the war every step along the way. Family historians can gather facts for their family trees and put them in the context of the war as it happened.
U.S. Military Casualty Lists
Another valuable resource for family historians are the war casualty lists many newspapers published. In this example, published in the Macon Telegraph (Macon, Georgia), 6 August 1918, page 1, the newspaper published the full casualty list and spiked out the Georgia men that died in a prominent boxed note that appeared on page one.
Most U.S. citizens do not remain in the military as a lifelong career. However, their military service was almost always mentioned in their obituary notice—as in this example, published in the Barre Gazette (Barre, Massachusetts), 31 July 1840, page 2, of the late Isaac Van Wart (1751-1840) of Tarrytown (Westchester County) and Pittstown (Rensselaer County), New York. Obituaries, birth announcements and marriage notices are some of the excellent resources newspapers provide family historians. During times of war, draft, slacker, and casualty lists are another helpful genealogical resource. In addition to information about your individual ancestors, newspapers provide the stories about what the entire United States was going through, to help you put your ancestors’ experiences in context and thereby come to understand them a little more. Digital newspaper archives online have become the core tool for modern genealogy, helping genealogists and family history researchers discover more about their family’s military past than ever before possible. Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, Maryland), 7 April 1917, page 1.

Tracing Famous ‘Mayflower’ Passenger Peregrine White’s Family Tree

Newspapers tell the story of the everyday lives of our ancestors. GenealogyBank is the best genealogy resource for online newspapers available anywhere, with a massive collection of content spanning nearly 400 years of American history.

The historical newspaper article in the upper right is an obituary of Peregrine White, “the First Englishman born in New England”—he was born on board the Mayflower in Cape Cod Harbor in November 1620! Peregrine White’s obituary appeared in the Boston News-Letter (Boston, Massachusetts), 24 July-31 July 1704, page 2. The newspaper article below it is about a family reunion including four generations of Peregrine White’s descendants who gathered in McMinnville, Oregon. This family reunion newspaper article was published in the Oregonian (Portland, Oregon), 30 May 1915, Section 3, page 9.
Peregrine White’s descendants were understandably proud to have such a famous ancestor, a Mayflower ship passenger, in their family tree. This past summer, when Mary Alice (Haskell) Morey (1928-2011) died, her obituary prominently mentioned that she was a direct descendant of Peregrine White.Her obituary was printed by the Natick Bulletin & TAB (Natick, Massachusetts), 22 July 2011, page 18. Read her complete obituary in GenealogyBank.

With over 250,000 newspaper articles at GenealogyBank related to the Mayflower you can learn so much more about Peregrine White and his descendants, as well as discover who the other Pilgrims were that arrived in America as passengers on the famous ship. Research Mayflower ship passenger lists and explore our Pilgrim ancestors’ lives with newspaper articles about Plymouth Colony. Maybe you have ancestors who arrived on the Mayflower too?

Happy Thanksgiving Day to all genealogists around the world!

6 more newspapers go online

GenealogyBank adds more newspapers from 6 states.

If you haven’t searched GenealogyBank in awhile – it is time to sign-up and discover your ancestors. Do it now!

We have more than doubled in size in one year!!

We make it easy – you can even search all of GenealogyBank for free.

Mammoth Times (Mammoth Lakes, CA)
Obituaries: 10/09/2009 – Current
Death Notices: 10/07/2009 – Current

Montrose Daily Press, The (Montrose, CO)
Obituaries: 11/25/2009 – Current
Death Notices: 10/18/2009 – Current

Ridgefield Press, The (Ridgefield, CT)
Obituaries: 10/08/2009 – Current
Death Notices: 01/27/2010 – Current

Hernando Today (Brooksville, FL)
Obituaries: 11/16/2009 – Current
Death Notices: 10/03/2009 – Current


Independent Enterprise (Payette, ID)
Obituaries: None received to date
Death Notices: 10/03/2009 – Current:

Indianapolis Recorder, The (Indianapolis, IN)
Obituaries: 10/22/2009 – Current
Death Notices: 01/21/2010 – Current

Pilot-News (Plymouth, IN)
Obituaries: 10/31/2009 – Current
Death Notices: 01/28/2010 – Current

Passenger Lists

GenealogyBank is growing – it now has nearly 300 million items.
This morning I found this passenger list – published as a souvenir handbill that was likely given to the passengers on the steamship Silesia when it left on Tuesday November 30, 1869 bound for Plymouth, Cherbourg, London and Hamburg.

In addition to the 3,800 newspapers – GenealogyBank has over 255,000 digital books, documents and early printed items – like this one page passenger list from 1869. It’s amazing what you’ll find in GenealogyBank.

On close inspection of the newspapers I also found these articles giving more details of the passengers, the progress of the ship to the various ports of Europe and even this interesting article about the value of the gold bars that the ship was carrying.

Brief article in a Cincinnati newspaper about local residents who were passengers on the Silesia.
(Cincinnati Commerican Tribune – 5 Dec 1869)
Notice of the gold bars carried as cargo on that voyage.
(Philadelphia Inquirer – 6 Dec 1869).

Silesia arrives at the port of Le Havre, France. (Cincinnati Commercial Tribune – 11 Dec 1869).

GenealogyBank is a core tool for genealogists – packed with the practical information you’ll rely on for documenting your ancestor’s lives. Subscribe now.
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Genealogist Obituaries – genealogists in 11 states pass away

Genealogists in 11 states pass away.
CT, MA, MI, MN, NH, OK, PA, TN, UT, WA, WV

Bell, Frederick R. (1945-2009)
Spokesman-Review (Spokane, WA) – May 6, 2009

Brown, Robert Arthur. (1927-2009)
Knoxville News Sentinel (TN) – May 6, 2009

Carrington, Hiram D., Jr. (1930-2009)
Republican-American (Waterbury, CT) – May 5, 2009

Church, James. (1925-2009)
Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN) – May 5, 2009

Moher, Mariette I. (Corriveau). (1921-2009)
Telegraph, The (Nashua, NH) – May 5, 2009

Payne, Marlene Alcorn. (1935-2009)
Spectrum, The (St. George, UT) – May 5, 2009

Quesenberry, Bobby J., Jr. (1959-2009)
Charleston Gazette (WV) – May 5, 2009

Shoemaker, Clyde P. (1927-2009)
Intelligencer Journal (Lancaster, PA) – May 6, 2009

Stevens, Grace Louise. (1932-2009)
Kalamazoo Gazette (MI) – May 5, 2009

Ward, Dana Shaw. (1915-2009)
Plymouth Bulletin (MA) – May 5, 2009

Wilson, Joyce Fern. (1940-2009)
Muskogee Daily Phoenix and Times-Democrat (OK) – May 5, 2009

GenealogyBank with over 130 million obituaries is the largest source of obituaries and death records online.

Old Man of the Mountain – RIP 3 May 2003

It was six years ago that the Old Man of the Mountain fell.

His passing is as deeply felt today as when I heard the shocking news in 2003. It came across as a cable news bulletin. Hikers had heard the awful rumble in the early hours while it was still dark and when the sun came up they realized what had happened.

The next morning the quiet phone calls began … to my folks, my brothers – had they heard the news. They had.

We were all born and mostly raised in New Hampshire. Old “Sawyer” prints of the Old Man of the Mountain hang on the wall. He’s on the license plates – the NH edition of the quarter. He was a solid part of our lives. Familiar. Always there. A part of the family, our heritage.

Newspapers have been commenting on the impact of his image for centuries.

Samuel Adams Drake wrote “This gigantic silhouette which has been christened the Old Man of the Mountain is unquestionably the greatest curiosity of this or any other mountain region” (St. Alban’s Messenger (VT) 16 July 1881).

The Old Man was first “discovered” in 1805 by Luke Brooks and Francis Whitcomb who were charged by the town of Franconia, NH to survey the town. See NH Gazette 25 June 1805.

One of the earliest descriptions of the Old Man was published in the Salem Gazette (MA) 22 Nov 1825.

By 1827 a new stage line had “purchased good horses and carriages … and procured a careful driver” and organized the “Plymouth and Franconia” stage line, with runs twice a week past the Old Man – “a very level and pleasant route”. (NH Patriot 15 Jan 1827).

Wild Bill Obama

May 27th was Wild Bill Hickok’s day – I wrote about how easy it is to find newspaper articles about him in GenealogyBank.

Wild Bill Hickok is in the news again – when Barack Obama mentioned his family tradition that he was a distant cousin to Wild Bill – James Butler Hickok (1837-1876).

(Photo: Texas Observer Blog 27 Feb 2007)

Don’t you love it when politicians talk about their genealogy!

The New England Historic Genealogical Society does and issued a statement yesterday verifying Obama’s family tradition:

Obama and Hickok are sixth cousins, six-times removed. Their common ancestor is Thomas Blossom, who came to Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1629 from Leiden, Holland. Obama’s 4th great-grandfather, Jacob Dunham, was 6th cousins with Wild Bill. Obama’s mother, Stanley Ann, is also a Dunham.

“The ancestry of Wild Bill Hickok was published by NEHGS some years back, which showed he descended from the Blossom family of Cape Cod, an early family written up in one of our scholarly publications,” said Child. He added, “Since we had also recently done the ancestry of Senator Obama, finding this connection was a little easier.”

Click here to see the Obama – Hickok family tree – Wild Bill is related to Obama through his mother Polly Butler.