149th Anniversary: Civil War Ends with Lee’s Surrender to Grant

Introduction: Scott Phillips is a genealogical historian and owner of Onward To Our Past® genealogy services. In this guest blog post, Scott searches old newspapers to learn more about Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s surrender to Union General Ulysses S. Grant that effectively ended the American Civil War.

All of us have studied it, memorized the date, and (if we’ve been lucky) visited the place where it occurred: Appomattox Court House, Virginia, the site of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s surrender to Union General U. S. Grant, effectively ending the United States Civil War on 9 April 1865.

Although General Lee’s surrender was 149 years ago now, that momentous historical event still seems fresh in the public’s mind—and it must have been incredible news to our American ancestors all those many years ago.

I decided to take a look in GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives to see how the news of General Lee’s surrender was announced via the nation’s newspapers, and learn what has happened to Appomattox Court House since that fateful day.

Just six days before the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, surrendered, this Richmond newspaper was still giving its readers news about the war.

Vigorous Assault upon the Enemy's Works near the Appomattox, Richmond Whig newspaper article 28 March 1865

Richmond Whig (Richmond, Virginia), 28 March 1865, page 1

Just days before Generals Lee and Grant were to meet at Appomattox, the Battle of Five Forks was raging as reported in this Albany newspaper. One of my ancestors, Captain James Ham of the Pennsylvania Cavalry, was mortally wounded in this action and died five days before Lee’s surrender. I wonder how his family received the news about the war’s end, coming so soon after they had received word of his death.

article about the Civil War's Battle of Five Forks, Albany Evening Journal newspaper article 3 April 1865

Albany Evening Journal (Albany, New York), 3 April 1865, page 2

After Lee surrendered on April 9, it didn’t take long for word to spread across America, as you can imagine.

Enter Last Name










The headlines of this Boston newspaper article say it all.

Surrender of General Lee and His Entire Army, Boston Herald newspaper article 10 April 1865

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 10 April 1865, page 2

That same day and in the same city, readers of this Boston newspaper saw this article, including this paragraph:

The joy of our population this morning, as the intelligence of the surrender of Lee’s army spread, hardly knew bounds. Men embraced each other with the most extravagant demonstrations of feeling; staid, quiet citizens forgot their equanimity for the moment and found themselves cheering in the streets for Gen. Grant and the Potomac Army; workmen in shore gave voice to a joyous outburst of patriotic exultation, and everywhere the same accordant strains of heartfelt rejoicing were heard.

article about Civil War General Lee surrendering to General Grant, Boston Evening Transcript newspaper article 10 April 1865

Boston Evening Transcript (Boston, Massachusetts), 10 April 1865, page 2

Readers of a New York newspaper saw these headlines.

Surrender of Lee and His Whole Army to Grant, New York Herald newspaper article 10 April 1865

New York Herald (New York, New York), 10 April 1865, page 1

On the same day and across the country in California, this San Francisco newspaper reported the important news.

article about Civil War General Lee surrendering to General Grant, San Francisco Bulletin newspaper article 10 April 1865

San Francisco Bulletin (San Francisco, California), 10 April 1865, page 2

Twenty years later, as you can see in this 1885 Aberdeen newspaper article “The Interesting Story of Appomattox Retold,” the details of Lee’s surrender to Grant were still being reported. I remember as a young student reading these types of Civil War stories and realizing for the first time that Appomattox Court House was the name of a town, and that Lee and Grant had actually met in the home of the Wilmer McLean family.

Grant and Lee--The Interesting Story of Appomattox Retold, Aberdeen Weekly News newspaper article 17 April 1885

Aberdeen Weekly News (Aberdeen, South Dakota), 17 April 1885, page 3

Enter Last Name










The fortunes of Appomattox Court House waned after the war, as you can read in this 1884 New York newspaper article. It reports that the town was almost deserted and the McLean home had been:

…taken down, brick by brick, for removal to the World’s Fair, but for some reason the plan was not carried out, and the bricks and timbers are still stored in the vacant houses in the neighborhood.

article about Appomattox Court House, Virginia, New York Tribune newspaper article 10 June 1894

New York Tribune (New York, New York), 10 June 1894, page 16

Luckily for all of us, as you can read in this 1903 Dallas newspaper article, bills had been introduced in Congress to provide funding to buy and save the historic McLean house in Appomattox before it was sold to a Chicagoan who planned to move it there and use it as his residence.

McLean House at Appomattox, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 22 February 1903

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 22 February 1903, page 23

And of course as a genealogist, it would be hard not to note the remarkable role played by one of the Appomattox surrender’s lesser known but critically important players, Ely Parker. You might not recognize the name so I’d recommend you take a look at this wonderful obituary for this full-blooded Seneca Indian who actually penned Grant’s terms for surrender. This obituary appeared in an 1895 Cleveland newspaper.

obituary for Ely Samuel Parker, Plain Dealer newspaper article 1 September 1895

Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), 1 September 1895, page 1

Today Appomattox Court House, Virginia, and the McLean House are part of our National Parks system and well worth a visit.

Read More Articles about the Civil War:

banner ad for gift subscriptions to GenealogyBank

Outlaws in the News: Bonnie & Clyde, Al Capone & My Ancestor

Introduction: Scott Phillips is a genealogical historian and owner of Onward To Our Past® genealogy services. In this guest blog post, Scott shows how criminal records and old newspaper articles about your outlaw ancestors can help fill in important details on your family tree.

Everyone’s family tree has at least one or two “bad seeds”: outlaw ancestors, who ran on the wrong side of the law. While it is unfortunate that they chose the “dark side of the force,” it is lucky for us genealogists that newspapers love to report on these black sheep! Our outlaw ancestors might have been portrayed as “bad,” but we reap the benefits of the press coverage they generated—finding in those old newspaper articles many additional details for our genealogy, family history, and family trees.

To illustrate this point, I searched through GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives for old news articles about famous outlaws, to show how much family history information those articles contain.

Bonnie Parker & Clyde Barrow

Take a look at Bonnie and Clyde for example. While we all know the basic story, there is far more that can be found in the newspapers of the day, such as this 1934 article from an Illinois newspaper. This particular news article alone contains many juicy genealogy facts about the Clyde’s funeral, such as where Clyde was buried, that Bonnie’s sister was in jail at the time facing two counts of murder in the deaths of two policemen, and the name of Bonnie’s mother.

And what about that intriguing last paragraph? Who was the anonymous friend who flew an airplane over the gravesite as Clyde was being buried and dropped a wreath of flowers onto the grave? Now there’s a mysterious puzzle that would be fun to try and unravel!

Clyde Barrow Buried in Texas, Morning Star newspaper article 26 May 1934

Morning Star (Rockford, Illinois), 26 May 1934, page 7

Al Capone a.k.a. Scarface

While we all recognize the name “Scarface” Al Capone, this 1926 article from a Massachusetts newspaper reports that Mafia legend Al had a brother, Ralph, who had just been arrested and charged with the slaying of Illinois Assistant State’s Attorney William McSwiggin and two “beer gangsters”: “Red” Duffy and James Doherty.

article about Ralph Capone, Springfield Republican newspaper article 30 April 1926

Springfield Republican (Springfield, Massachusetts), 30 April 1926, page 11

And of course it is almost impossible to say “Al Capone” without thinking of, or saying, Eliot Ness! I enjoyed this 1931 article from a California newspaper not only because it talks about Eliot Ness and his crew of agents—it also gives us the name of Steve Svoboda, who was among those arrested. Since Svoboda had been arrested in another Capone-owned brewery just two weeks earlier, he may well have been a member of Scarface’s gang!

Stage Raid on (Al) Capone Brewery, Evening Tribune newspaper article 11 April 1931

Evening Tribune (San Diego, California), 11 April 1931, page 19

My Outlaw Ancestor: Herman Vicha

But it is not only the infamous that we can read about and learn from for our family trees.

In my own family tree is information from a small newspaper clipping that a cousin once gave me. Yellowed with age, brittle, and tattered about its edges, this small article was dated in its margin simply “1916” and consisted of a single sentence. That sentence was: “Herman Vicha was convicted in common pleas court of stealing brass from the Lorain Sand and Gravel Company.” That one sentence led me to some amazing discoveries about this ancestor.

First I contacted the Lorain County, Ohio, courts and—thanks to a wonderfully helpful staff member—I soon received five pages of court documents from the 1916 case of “State of Ohio vs. Herman Vicha.” The case was for grand larceny because my ancestor was accused of stealing $37.25 worth of brass from the Lorain Sand and Gravel Company. He was convicted and sentenced to 1 to 7 years!

Following up on this case, I contacted the Ohio State Historical Society and, after filing the appropriate paperwork, received over a dozen pages of the prison files for this ancestor. This paperwork path initially took me to the Ohio State Reformatory in Mansfield, Ohio. If the name of this prison isn’t familiar, perhaps you have seen the movies Shawshank Redemption and Air Force One? If so, this was the prison used in those movies.

photto of the Ohio State Reformatory

Photo: Ohio State Reformatory. Credit: from the author’s collection.

One of the more amazing historical documents I received was the “Bertillon Card” for my ancestor. This was a great genealogical find since it has our only photograph of Herman Vicha, plus gives a wealth of physical description about him as well as the year and location of his birth.

photo of the Bertillon card for Herman Vicha, 1916

Photo: Bertillon card for Herman Vicha, 1916. Credit: from the author’s collection.

I admit that I had to take a moment and learn exactly what a Bertillon Card was. The full-page obituary for Alphonse Bertillon that I found in a 1914 Colorado newspaper gave me all the information I needed to understand the details listed on my ancestor’s card.

obituary for Alphonse Bertillon, Colorado Springs Gazette newspaper article 15 March 1914

Colorado Springs Gazette (Colorado Springs, Colorado), 15 March 1914, page 31

My ancestry research path moved from this prison, across the state of Ohio, to the Lima State Hospital for the Criminally Insane where Herman was kept. My concern for what my ancestor went through increased when I read this 1971 article from a Virginia newspaper with this opening sentence:

“The fortress-like state hospital for the criminal insane here has been described by inmates, staff members, state officials and Ohio’s governors as a chamber of horrors.”

Ohio Hospital Has Sordid Image, Richmond Times Dispatch newspaper article 28 November 1971

Richmond Times Dispatch (Richmond, Virginia), 28 November 1971, page 34

Herman Vicha’s sentence actually lasted for 7 years, 3 months, and 8 days plus an additional 1 year, 3 months, and 12 days in the Cleveland State Hospital after being released from Lima.

Note that all of this detective work to track down my outlaw ancestor began with one small old newspaper clipping!

Herman died in a boarding house in Danville, Kentucky, while working as a trucker and having assumed the new name of “Henry Miller”—but how I found him under his new name is a whole different genealogy detective story that will have to wait for another day!

What information have you found for your family tree from the criminal records and newspaper clippings about your outlaw ancestors? Share your family stories with us in the comments.

Related Articles:

3 True-Life Love Stories to Brighten Your Valentine’s Day

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena searches old newspapers to find three heart-warming love stories sure to brighten your Valentine’s Day.

Romeo and Juliet, Anthony and Cleopatra, Edward and Wallis Simpson. We tend to think of historical or fictional characters when we think of great love stories—but what about the true-life love stories from your own family history? When I think about my more immediate family history I think of my paternal grandparents and how they fell in love as teenagers; my grandmother was just 16 years old when they wed. They had been married 47 years when my grandmother died, a loss my grandfather never got over.

Do you know your ancestors’ love story? Search online newspapers, such as GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives, to see if their story was ever printed in the local paper.

Love at First Sight

Did your ancestors have a case of love at first sight? Sometimes Cupid hits a couple hard and they make a quick decision to marry. Such is the case described in this 1905 newspaper article about Margery Parker and M. J. Young, who met at a social gathering and then three days later got married!

Courted Three Days, She (Margery Parker) Is Now a Bride, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 13 April 1905

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 13 April 1905, page 1

The newspaper article explains that “on Sunday evening the young couple gave their friends in this city the slip” and went to the home of the bride’s sister. From there they went to the Baptist parsonage and were married with her sister and brother-in-law as witnesses.

Love Reunited

Do you have an immigration love story in your family history? Immigrating to a new country isn’t easy. Besides leaving the familiar and starting over, you also run the risk of not being allowed into the country when you arrive. The following story is a familiar one that involves a young couple and their baby. The father came to the United States and started a new life before sending for his intended and their baby. However, there was a hiccup in those plans when Elsie Ekberg stepped off the ship at Ellis Island. She was detained and an investigation was held to see if this 20-year-old unmarried mother really had someone here in the U.S. waiting for her. Luckily Harold Ericson telegrammed officials that Elsie “was already his wife in all but the formality of a wedding.”

Unwed Mother (Elsie Ekberg) Wins Entry into America, Oregonian newspaper article 26 May 1922

Oregonian (Portland, Oregon), 26 May 1922, page 1

I’m sure Elsie must have been relieved when Harold stepped forward. She said: “If all men were true blue to the girls they profess to love, this world would be a paradise.”

Love Growing Old Together

When we think of love stories we often think of young couples—but those young couples eventually grow old together, and in some cases they are still as much in love as they were when they were young. The next newspaper article is a wonderful example of that. Married for 69 years, this New York couple tells the story of how they met and also gives marital advice. The Maxwells knew each other as children and fell in love when Halley’s Comet went by—and were still in love as Haley’s comet was making its return appearance. “Halley’s Comet swung by us that year [1835]. Now it is back again and she still loves me,” Mr. Maxwell proclaimed.

Some of their marriage advice is “old-fashioned.” (Mrs. Maxwell explains that it’s best not to let those “…suffragette ideas get in your mind. They are dangerous.”) However, she does have advice about men that is relevant today: she would never marry a man who drank because it would “drive away his good self.”

Longest Recorded Is the Love Affair of This Happy Old Couple (James and Mary Maxwell), Grand Rapids Press newspaper article 25 May 1910

Grand Rapids Press (Grand Rapids, Michigan), 25 May 1910, page 9

My favorite piece of advice is from her husband, James A. Maxwell, who says to bridegrooms:

In the first place keep your mouth closed. You’ve been mixing up with men so long you don’t understand women. You’ll try to treat her as you would a man partner. When she criticizes or argues or complains you’ll want to talk back to her as you would to a man. Don’t do it, I warn you. Kings of nations can make speeches; kings of homes can keep silence—or they are not kings.

He ends his relationship advice with:

My wife was pretty, but I didn’t marry her on that account. Be sure your girl is good and true. You can find it out by watching her. Then make up your mind to stick to her. You’ll love her more as each year goes by. I love my wife sixty-nine times more than I did when we were first married.

Your Family History Love Story Here

So what’s your ancestors’ love story? Have one that has been passed down the generations? Maybe you have a more recent ancestor that you personally remember was so in love. Write those old love stories down and preserve them for your family.

This Valentine’s Day we want to honor those family love stories. Please share your family history love story in the comments below.

The Importance of Old Newspaper Advertisements to Genealogy

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena writes about the value of a resource in newspapers that is often overlooked by genealogists: the classified ads.

“Be sure to drink your Ovaltine. Ovaltine? A crummy commercial.”—Ralphie Parker from the movie A Christmas Story.

Advertisements: they often seem the bane of our existence. On television, advertisements scream at us every few minutes, interrupting our favorite shows. When you pick up a magazine it seems that more than half the pages are filled with ads for everything from food and household cleaners to prescription medications. Now in the world of Web 2.0, advertisements invade every aspect of our Internet experience, even as a necessary evil when using free apps.

In today’s world advertisements are impersonal and contain little family information—but this was not always the case. Ads from an earlier era were different, more personally connected to their audience, and can provide helpful information for family historians. This is especially true of advertisements from old newspapers.

When you think of the “important” sections of the newspaper for family history research, what do you think of? Vital record announcements, obituaries, and human interest stories may come to mind as sources of genealogical information. But what about those parts of the newspaper that aren’t considered “content rich”? What about advertisements?

As a genealogist researching your family history, why should you care about newspaper advertisements? Well, advertisements in newspapers from yesteryear can help researchers in two ways. The obvious way is that they can provide the name of an ancestor’s business—but they also provide us with social history background that can be crucial in reconstructing an ancestor’s time and place.

Consider this strip of ads from an old Kansas newspaper.

classified ads, Coffeyville Herald newspaper 25 April 1908

Coffeyville Herald (Coffeyville, Kansas), 25 April 1908, page 4

From these old advertisements we learn the name of proprietors of goods ranging from clothes and hats to fish, and even ice cream. An additional benefit of historical newspaper advertisements is that they provide a peek into activities long since extinct. Consider the millinery and phyrography store. Phyrography is when someone decorates a wood or leather surface by burning the design into the surface with a type of heated metallic “pen.”

Here are some old classified ads from an 1851 Georgia newspaper.

classified ads, Savannah Republican newspaper 18 June 1851

Savannah Republican (Savannah, Georgia), 18 June 1851, page 1

Here we see not only classified ads but a listing of merchant names. Must-have information for our ancestors including fares and stops for the Central Rail-Road and some ship lines are also found on this page. Further down, readers can see that there are notices of public land sales in Arkansas. Do you have an ancestor who started out in Georgia and ended up in Arkansas? Maybe they saw this notice for the land sale and headed west.

In some cases, historical advertisements can be found with other types of notices, as illustrated in this Civil War-era newspaper from Texas.

classified ads, Standard newspaper 9 May 1863

Standard (Clarksville, Texas), 9 May 1863, page 1

The advertisements and announcements on this page include notices from administrators of wills, a physician who will begin his practice, and information from the War Department. There are old ads for medicinal drugs that are for sale, presumably at a local pharmacy: opium, morphine, Blue Mass (a remedy that “cured” all sorts of problems including pains from childbirth, tuberculosis, constipation, and syphilis—one of its ingredients was mercury), ipicac, and Dovers Powders (a remedy for colds and fevers that contained opium) are just some of the “medicines” you could pick up.

One of the great things about this series of advertisements is that it is a reflection of the times. Note the short notice asking families to save rags because they are needed to make paper. Five cents a pound is offered for rags. During the Civil War, the South experienced all types of shortages including paper. This notice gives insight into these wartime shortages.

Can advertisements provide genealogists with answers about their ancestors? Yes! Not only can they provide proof of an ancestor’s occupation but they can also provide a sense of their era. These advertisements provide a much-needed history lesson for our genealogy. While it can be tempting to skip over some sections of a newspaper, don’t skip the old advertisements. They provide insight into your ancestor’s life.

NBC Prime Time: Who Do You Think You Are? – Sarah Jessica Parker

If you missed the first show of the NBC prime time series Who Do You Think You Are? – you can click here and see it on Hulu.com

Watch it and see how Sarah Jessica Parker used newspapers to find the crucial information she needed to climb up to the next branches on her family tree.
Search over 4,300 newspapers on GenealogyBank and see what you will discover about your family.
.

Wow! Meryl Streep, Stephen Colbert and other celebrities trace their heritage

Those “Wow” moments in genealogy.

GenealogyBank readers write us all the time with their “WoW” moments – telling us what they found.

This new PBS television series let’s you see the wow moments as Meryl Streep; Stephen Colbert and other celebrities discover their roots for the first time. The genuine awe and surprise is real.

Faces of America” – is filled with “Wow” moments – watch this

The series starts this coming Wednesday – February 10th and runs through March 3rd in the 8-9pm (ET) time slot.

The series will trace the ancestry of:

Meryl Streep, Stephen Colbert, Dr. Mehmet Oz, Queen Noor, Yo-Yo Ma, Louise Erdrich, Kristi Yamaguchi, Mario Batali, Eva Lonigoria Parker, Malcolm Gladwell, Elizabeth Alexander and Mike Nichols.

It’s not often that genealogy is in the spotlight – get your family & friends to watch – maybe they’ll catch the genealogy bug too.

It’s a great day for genealogy!

Sign up for GenealogyBank now and see what you’ll find about your family!

Wow!

California – Sutro Library Announces Closing Saturdays; Some Fridays

Sutro Library announces Friday, Saturday closing schedule.

The Sutro Library, the most extensive genealogy collection west of Salt Lake City and the San Francisco branch of the California State Library, announces changes in its days of operation. As of July 1, 2009, Saturday hours have been discontinued.

In compliance with the Governor’s furlough order, Sutro Library will close three Fridays this month: July 10, 17, and 24.

Beginning August 1, 2009 and continuing until June 2010, the library will close the first, second, and third Fridays of each month.

Regular service hours for Sutro are Monday through Friday, 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., excluding furlough Fridays and state holidays.

Sutro Library offers the most extensive genealogy collection west of Salt Lake City; a comprehensive local history collection; Adolph Sutro’s rare book and manuscript collections; genealogical, family and local history catalogs; and special indexes, guides, and bibliographies. Library materials can be accessed through the California State Library’s Main Catalog, and Sutro staff is available to assist in-house customers.

Items from the Sutro Library may be borrowed on interlibrary loan through local public libraries. For additional information or directions to the library, visit, phone (415) 731-4477, or e-mail. Laura Parker, Public Information Officer; California State Library; 900 N Street, Suite 300; Sacramento, CA 94237; (916) 651-6798.

You read it here first.

Genealogy Humor

One of our readers (Kevin Clark) pointed me to today’s Wizard of Id cartoon – that speaks to the “high cost” of family history research.

To see the cartoon – click here
or if that site is busy – click here

Wizard of Id by Parker and Hart is one of my favorites.