African American Slave Trade: Ships & Records for Genealogy

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena searches old newspapers and other online resources to learn more about the African slave trade in early American history.

Throughout the course of the Atlantic Slave Trade, an estimated 12 million Africans were captured in their homeland and forcibly shipped across the Atlantic, on more than 35,000 voyages, starting in the 17th century* The African Diaspora scattered Africans throughout the Caribbean and Americas. The first slave ship to land in Colonial America went to Jamestown, Virginia, in August 1619. Eighteen years later, the first American slave ship, Desire, sailed out of Massachusetts. This forced migration caused the displacement, torture, enslavement and murder of many Africans.**

African slaves brought to the Americas were part of the “Middle Passage,” a voyage that began in Europe, stopped in Africa to unload supplies and pick up enslaved human cargo, and then traveled to American ports on the eastern coast to trade that human cargo for goods that were then shipped back to Europe.

History of the African Slave Trade in Early America and the United States Infographic (Note: the article continues after this infographic.)

History of the African Slave Trade in America

This troubling part of American history—and important part of African American history—can be uncovered and explored with patient historical research, including searching in old newspapers such as GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives.

Laws Slow—but Don’t Stop—the African Slave Trade

It would seem that the African slave trade to America would have been stopped by a law passed by the U.S. Congress in March 1807 that stated:

“That from and after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and eight, it shall not be lawful to import or bring into the United States or the territories thereof from any foreign kingdom, place, or country, any negro, mulatto, or person of colour, with intent to hold, sell, or dispose of such negro, mulatto, or person of colour, as a slave, or to be held to service or labour.”***

Genealogy Tip:

Read more about U.S. legislation in the 1800s regarding slavery in GenealogyBank’s Historical Documents section which contains The American State Papers and more.

However, the Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves and a similar law passed in the United Kingdom didn’t end the practice of the slave trade. Slave ships illegally continued to bring their human cargo to U.S. ports, and American newspapers continued reporting on the occasional capture of a slave ship into the 1840s. (Two ships, the Wanderer and the Clotilde, are reported to have brought slaves to the United States well into the 1850s.) As with the passage of most laws, those who would break the law don’t end their criminal deeds; instead a black market thrives.

Slave Advertisements in Newspapers

Eighteenth-century newspapers found in GenealogyBank’s archives report of the comings and goings of slave ships, when the African slave trade was still legal. From advertisements to shipping news articles, researchers can find mentions of slave ships, names of their captains, and descriptions of the people on board.

In some cases advertisements for the upcoming sale of slaves included information on the ship they would be arriving on. In this example from a 1785 South Carolina newspaper, Fisher & Edwards advertise that the ship Commerce, under Captain Thomas Morton, will be arriving from Africa’s Gold Coast with “upwards of 200 prime slaves” for sale.

ad for a slave auction, South-Carolina Weekly Gazette newspaper advertisement 6 August 1785

South-Carolina Weekly Gazette (Charleston, South Carolina), 6 August 1785, page 3

An earlier South Carolina advertisement proclaims that the slaves aboard Captain Buncombe’s ship Venus are “mostly stout men.”

ad for a slave auction, South-Carolina Weekly Gazette newspaper advertisement 17 July 1784

South-Carolina Weekly Gazette (Charleston, South Carolina), 17 July 1784, page 4

Slave Ship “Shipping News” in Newspapers

Articles under “Shipping News” or “Marine List” headlines are a good place to start searching for information about slave ships, crew, and cargo.

In this example from a 1799 New York newspaper, we see updates on various ships including information about deaths on ships. We also see that the Gurbridge and Mary were bringing slaves, and to whom they were being brought.

shipping news, Commercial Advertiser newspaper article 31 July 1799

Commercial Advertiser (New York, New York), 31 July 1799, page 3

Where to Find Records on the African Slave Trade & Slave Ships

  • After exhausting your research in newspapers, learn more about a particular slave ship by consulting the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database website, which houses information about slave ships from 1514 to 1866.

The National Archives (NARA) houses resources that can assist in your research:

African American Slave Trade Infographic Research Sources:

These online websites can be helpful, but research on the name of a slave ship should begin with historical newspapers. It’s in their advertisements and news articles that you will find mentions of the slave ships’ cargo, crew, and destination.

You are free to share the History of the African Slave Trade in Early America and the United States Infographic on your blog or website using the embed code below.

__________________

* The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces. Accessed 23 February 2014.

** “March 2, 1807.” This Week in History, March. http://www.peacebuttons.info/E-News/images/peacehistorymarch.htm. Accessed 23 February 2014.

*** “An Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves into any Port or Place Within the Jurisdiction of the United States, From and After the First Day of January, in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eight.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/sl004.asp. Accessed 23 February 2014.

6 Tips to Get Started Researching Your Family History

Introduction: Sarah Brooks, from Freepeoplesearch.org, is a Houston-based freelance writer and blogger. Questions and comments can be sent to her at: brooks.sarah23@gmail.com. In this guest blog post, Sarah provides some basic tips on doing your own genealogy.

Researching your family history can be both fun and gratifying. For some genealogists, this research is simply a way to complete an individual family tree by filling in missing names and dates. However, many family historians want to go farther than just collecting vital statistics. For them, the purpose of genealogy research is to get a better understanding of their family stories, family member personalities, and the unique cities, towns, and communities surrounding their relatives.

Whatever your reasons are for researching your family history, the effort will be challenging, time consuming—and worthwhile. Follow these tips to make your genealogy research as fun, rewarding, and easy as possible.

1) Gather Family Documents, Pictures, and Notes

To start your family history search, begin at home. Gather all of the family pictures, letters, and documents you currently have and organize them in archival, acid-free boxes and folders.

photo of archival boxes and folders

Source: Texas State Library & Archives Commission

Next, begin taking detailed notes on what you already know about your family. From where did your family emigrate? Where did they settle? What marriages and children do you know about? After collecting everything immediately available to you, it’s time to move on to the next steps in your genealogy research.

2) Interview Living Relatives

The most knowledgeable and accessible sources of information about your family are your relatives, so you should interview them as part of your family history search. In particular, the oldest surviving relatives in your family—grandparents, great grandparents, and great aunts or uncles—know a great deal about your family’s history and will probably be able to help the most in piecing together your family history.

Depending on what your relatives are comfortable with, you can bring a tape recorder, camera, video camera or just a notebook and pen to fully document the interviews and get as much input as possible from the older generation. While written content on family history is always valuable, so are images, audio, and video, which supplement your notes and capture each family member’s appearance and personality. Ultimately, this multimedia approach to interviewing can help bring your family stories to life.

3) Document Your Family Tree

Finally, as you interview your relatives, begin filling out your family tree. You can design your own family tree as the interviews unfold, or use a pre-designed family tree template to fill in the blanks. GenealogyBank offers a free digital family tree that can be edited with Microsoft PowerPoint. Just visit: “Family Tree Template—Free Download.” Once you are finished filling out the names and dates on the family tree chart in PowerPoint, you can easily print it out. That way you can create both digital and paper copies of your family tree.

photo of a family tree template

4) Back Up Your Genealogy Work!

As much as possible, preserve your genealogy material in different formats and places: store paper copies in archival boxes and folders; and digital copies on your computer’s hard drive, on various websites such as Scribd.com and Pinterest, and on “cloud” online storage sites such as Dropbox, Carbonite, Evernote and Mozy.

5) Find Good Genealogy Sources

After you interview relatives and record their family stories, you should then find additional genealogy sources to corroborate facts, fill in the blanks, and add additional stories. A great place to begin searching for secondary source information is through old newspapers. GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives, for example, offer more than 6,500 historical newspapers that date from 1690 to the present.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's newspaper search page

Historical newspapers are a great way to learn your ancestors’ stories, as they are filled with obituaries, marriage announcements, birth notices, and local news stories that are crucial to understanding and piecing together family history. Obituaries, in particular, can provide valuable information about an individual’s past.

In addition to searching online newspapers, you can also visit libraries in the towns where your ancestors lived. These visits allow you to search local publications, conduct interviews with clerks and historians, and view census information first-hand. Military records and even medical documents are sometimes available for your review. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also maintains an excellent database for genealogical records that can be a big help in your family history research.

6) Filling Gaps and Building Your Family Tree

The key to creating a full, detailed family tree is to be persistent in your search. New information about individuals and communities becomes available regularly, so it might be just a matter of time before you solve family mysteries and fill all the gaps in your family tree.

Whether your ancestral quest is a short-term project or a life-long passion, persistence and creative thinking will lead you to new and fascinating information about your family history.

Related Articles:

10 Famous African Americans in 18th & 19th Century History

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post, to celebrate February being Black History Month, Mary searches old newspapers to find information about 10 African Americans who achieved notable “firsts” in American history

So rich is the history of persons of color, that when GenealogyBank asked me to research historical African American accomplishments, it was difficult to narrow the choices.

As a result, this article focuses on just a few famous African American women and men of the 18th and 19th Centuries. This list includes transformational leaders, authors, inventors and the people behind many of the “firsts” in American history. At the conclusion of this article, follow the links to further broaden your knowledge of these famous African Americans, as well as other notable people who could not be featured in this short piece.

For researchers of Black history who know these earlier achievers as household names, take this handy quiz—which you are welcome to share with others.

For everyone else, read on to learn more about these individuals, with information gleaned from GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives.

quiz about 10 famous African Americans from the 17th and 18th centuries

1) Benjamin Banneker (9 Nov. 1731 Baltimore, MD – 9 Oct. 1806 Baltimore, MD)

Early newspapers described Banneker as “a noted Negro mathematician and astronomer”—but he was also a farmer, clock-maker and self-taught scientist. In addition, he was the first African American to author an almanac.

Banneker was chosen to assist Major Andrew Ellicott with his project to survey the borders of the District of Columbia. Known to be a voluminous writer of letters, Banneker became involved in the movement to establish the colony of Liberia in Africa. He was never enslaved, as his parents, Mary and Robert, were free.

(See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Banneker.)

article about Benjamin Banneker, Omaha World Herald newspaper article 29 August 1926

Omaha World Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), 29 August 1926, page 64

2) James Derham (1757 Philadelphia, PA – 1802)

Although he did not hold a degree, James Derham became the first African American man to formally practice medicine, a skill he learned during the Revolutionary War while serving with the British under his master, Dr. George West. Derham was fluent in French, English and Spanish. As someone taught to compound medicines, he was an early pharmacist. His medical business in New Orleans, Louisiana, reportedly earned him $3,000 per year.

This 1789 newspaper article presented a biography of James Derham.

article about James Derham, New-Hampshire Spy newspaper article 3 February 1789

New-Hampshire Spy (Portsmouth, New Hampshire), 3 February 1789, page 120

In this 1828 newspaper article, a local New Orleans doctor expressed his admiration for James Derham’s medical knowledge:

‘I conversed with him on medicine,’ says Dr. Rush, ‘and found him very learned. I thought I could give him information concerning the treatment of diseases, but I learned more from him than he could expect from me.’

article about James Derham, Freedom’s Journal newspaper article 14 November 1828

Freedom’s Journal (New York, New York), 14 November 1828, page 2

3) Jupiter Hammon (17 Oct. 1711 Lloyd Harbor, NY – before 1806)

Hammon was an abolitionist, the first published African American poet, and is largely considered to be one of the founders of African American literature. Enslaved by the John Lloyd family and never emancipated, he was allowed to write and even served in the American Revolutionary War.

One of his poems, “An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries,” was published as a broadside (i.e., a paper printed on a single page).

(See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter_Hammon.)

article about Jupiter Hammon, Richmond Times Dispatch newspaper article 24 April 1924

Richmond Times Dispatch (Richmond, Virginia), 24 April 1924, page 6

For more information about his life, see: Authentication of Poem Written by 18th Century Slave and Author, Jupiter Hammon (Cedrick May, University of Texas at Arlington).

4) Absalom Jones (1746 Delaware – 13 Feb. 1818 Philadelphia, PA)

Born into slavery, Absalom Jones was a noted abolitionist who became the first ordained African American priest of the Episcopal Church, in 1795. Early newspapers depict him as an articulate and educated man, who worked to establish a free colony of former slaves in Africa. In the Episcopal Calendar of Saints, 13 February is celebrated as “Absalom Jones, Priest 1818.”

(See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absalom_Jones.)

article about Absalom Jones, Amherst Journal newspaper article 26 September 1795

Amherst Journal (Amherst, New Hampshire), 26 September 1795, page 3

5) Jarena Lee (c. 1783 Cape May, NJ – unknown)

A noted Evangelist, Jarena Lee was the first African American woman to publish an autobiography.

portrait of Jarena Lee

Portrait: Jarena Lee. Credit: Library of Congress.

The earliest mention of Jarena Lee in a newspaper was in 1840, when she was listed as a member of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society from Pennsylvania.

article about Jarena Lee, Emancipator newspaper article 29 May 1840

Emancipator (New York, New York), 29 May 1840, page 18

Another report from an 1853 newspaper mentions Lee involved in a discussion about the Colonization Society.

article about Jarena Lee, Liberator newspaper article 9 December 1853

Liberator (Boston, Massachusetts), 9 December 1853, page 195

6) Mary Eliza Mahoney (16 Apr. 1845 Dorchester, MA – 4 Jan. 1926 Boston MA)

After working at the New England Hospital for Women and Children, Mary Eliza Mahoney became the first African American woman to be accepted into nursing school, at the age of 33. It took 16 months, after which only 3 of the 40 applicants graduated. By 1908 she had co-founded the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN) with Ada B. Thorns. She went on to be an active participant in other nursing organizations, along with holding titles as a director. When women gained their voting rights in 1920, Mahoney was the first woman in Boston to register to vote. Several prestigious nursing awards are given in her honor.

(See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Eliza_Mahoney.)

article about Mary Eliza Mahoney, Milwaukee Star newspaper article 13 July 1968

Milwaukee Star (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), 13 July 1968, page 5

7) Judy W. Reed (c. 1826 – unknown)

Judy W. Reed is often hailed as the first African American woman to hold a patent, for her dough kneader.

illustration of Judy Reed's dough kneader

Illustration: Judy Reed’s dough kneader. Credit: United States Patent & Trademark Office.

Not much is known about her life, but this 1900 newspaper article reports that she and several other women received their patents in 1899.

(Note: Google patents reports that they were earlier. See: https://www.google.com/patents.)

article about Judy Reed, Evansville Courier and Press newspaper article 11 June 1900

Evansville Courier and Press (Evansville, Indiana), 11 June 1900, page 5

8) Alexander Lucius Twilight (26 Sep. 1795 Corinth, VT – 19 June 1857 Brownington, VT)

Twilight was a licensed Congregational minister, a teacher and politician. In 1823 he became the first African American to earn a bachelor’s degree when he graduated from Middlebury College in Vermont. He also became the first state-elected official when he joined the Vermont General Assembly in 1836.

(See: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/twilight-alexander-1795-1857.)

article about Alexander Twilight, American Repertory newspaper article 28 August 1823

American Repertory (St. Albans, Vermont), 28 August 1823, page 3

9) Phillis Wheatley or Phillis Wheatley Peters (8 May 1753 Senegambia, Africa – 5 Dec. 1784 Boston, MA)

Hailed in this 1773 newspaper as “the ingenious Negro Poet,” Phillis Wheatley was the first African American female poet to be published.

article about Phillis Wheatley, Connecticut Journal newspaper article 7 May 1773

Connecticut Journal (New Haven, Connecticut), 7 May 1773, page 3

Captured at the age of seven in the present-day regions of Gambia and Senegal, Africa, Phillis found herself enslaved by the John Wheatley family of Boston, who taught her to read and write. At the age of 20, this talented woman published Poems of Various Subjects, Religious and Moral, which was showcased in America and England. After the death of John Wheatley, she was emancipated and decided to marry John Peters. The family struggled financially, and after Peters was sent to prison for debts, Phillis became ill and died at the young age of 31.

(See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phillis_Wheatley.)

article featuring a poem by Phillis Wheatley, Boston-News Letter newspaper article 13 May 1773

Boston-News Letter (Boston, Massachusetts), 13 May 1773, page 4

10) Harriet E. “Hattie” Adams Wilson (15 Mar. 1825 New Hampshire – 28 June 1900 Quincy, MA)

Born to an African American “hooper of barrels” and a washerwoman of Irish descent, Hattie was raised by her parents until her father died. As a young girl, she found herself abandoned and bound out as an indentured servant on the farm of Nehemiah Heyward, Jr. After completing her indenture, she worked as a seamstress and servant. Some of her other occupations were: clairvoyant physician, nurse and healer. In 1851 she married Thomas Wilson, an escaped slave and lecturer. He soon abandoned her, but later returned to rescue her and her son from a poor farm.

(See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_E._Wilson.)

Harriet is credited with writing the first African American novel published in the U.S. Although copyrighted, “Our Nig: or Sketches from the Life of a Free Black, was published anonymously in 1859 and rediscovered by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. in 1982. Although a work of fiction, the book is thought to describe her life as an indentured servant. I couldn’t find any early newspaper articles to document her life or her novel, but I did find several recent articles discussing her work—including this one from 1982.

article about Harriet Adams Wilson, Omaha World Herald newspaper article 15 November 1982

Omaha World Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), 15 November 1982, page 6

For more information, see: African American Registry.)

Additional African American Research Resources

For more complete biographies on these and other noteworthy African Americans, see:

Mining for Historical News & Genealogy Clues in the Archives

Introduction: Scott Phillips is a genealogical historian and owner of Onward To Our Past® genealogy services. In this guest blog post, Scott searches old newspapers to find stories about how Mother Nature affected his ancestors’ lives—and discovers some important genealogy clues.

With the strength of this current winter, I don’t have to remind you that our dear Mother Nature can have a significant impact on our families and ourselves. Just the other day I got my car stuck in the snow in my own driveway! While I was “mumbling” about it to myself, I got to thinking about how long, harsh winters would have been even more challenging for our ancestors. That evening I decided to take a look at my family tree and see how Mother Nature’s hand had impacted some of my family members. Instinctively I turned to GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives and, naturally, I wasn’t disappointed.

Ancestor Obituary Clue

While researching one branch of my Phillips family, I uncovered an obituary about my ancestor Elijah Poad in a 1910 Montana newspaper.

Elijah Poad Dead, Anaconda Standard newspaper obituary 16 September 1910

Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana), 16 September 1910, page 9

Elijah had married Catherine Phillips, and shortly thereafter they emigrated from Great Britain to settle in the United States. Certainly one of my first questions was: “What would cause a Cornishman from St. Blazey, Cornwall, to go to Montana in 1885?”

Mining in Montana

I think I found my answer when I read another article from the Anaconda Standard, this one from 1899. This article begins “E. Poad, a miner at the Gagnon, was seriously injured yesterday by getting a fall in the mine.” While there wasn’t “gold in them thar hills,” there was silver and copper in the Montana hills—and the discovery of both had caused a huge rush to the Anaconda area, including my miner ancestor. Mother Nature at her finest, offering the temptation of riches!

(Elijah Poad) Seriously Injured, Anaconda Standard newspaper article 8 June 1899

Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana), 8 June 1899, page 8

More Mining for Genealogy Clues

While I was still reading the Anaconda Standard, another article from 1899 caught my eye due to its headline: “The Mesabi Range. Tremendous Possibilities of the Great New Region.” This was indeed a very interesting find to me. You see, my wife’s grandfather, Pasquale D’Aquila, had emigrated from Italy to Canada and then to the United States. I have found his border crossing record from 1915 at Eastport, Idaho. As the miner he was, could Pasquale have heard talk just like the news in this article about the iron ore riches of the Mesabi Range in Minnesota? Could an article just like the one I was reading have been what drew him there? Yes, or no, it is certainly evident that once again Mother Nature was wielding her influence.

The Mesabi Range (Montana), Anaconda Standard newspaper article 26 December 1899

Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana), 26 December 1899, page 12

News Flashback: the Polio Epidemic

It wasn’t long after this that I came upon a totally different and far less desirable impact of Mother Nature. I discovered two articles side-by-side in a 1952 Ohio newspaper. They had huge headlines blaring “Ohio Now Has 232 ‘Sure’ Polio Cases” and “‘Iron Lung’ Supply Runs Short Here.”

articles about the polio outbreak in Ohio and especially Cleveland, Plain Dealer newspaper articles 19 July 1952

Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), 19 July 1952, page 4

Now here was an impact of Mother Nature that I did not need an ancestor to illustrate for me, since I vividly recall the polio epidemics of my youth. I remember all too well that, just as the first article reported, “Swimming pools have been closed and other precautionary measures taken.” Our local swimming hole was posted with a sign in big, red letters that read: “Closed due to polio.” I also remember that the mother of one of my best friends was confined to a wheelchair due to polio, and I’ll never forget the ever-present (at least in my mind) threat of living your life in an “iron lung.”

I next found an article from a 1962 California newspaper with an even larger headline.

Dr. Sabin Hails Anti-Polio Clinics Set for Sunday, San Diego Union newspaper article 18 October 1962

San Diego Union (San Diego, California), 18 October 1962, page 12

How well I remember these clinics! I recall standing in a long line in the hot sun, with my entire family, awaiting our turn to get our “sugar cube” and incessantly questioning my father as to whether or not it was true that we would not get a “shot” but rather a sugar cube as we were told! (I really hated any shots as a kid!) And to think, especially now, that Dr. Sabin forwent patenting his discovery in order to keep the cost down and make his “wonder drug” available to everyone.

Then for some reason I searched the newspaper archives on “historic blizzard,” but when I saw there were 95 results I got too depressed at the thought of reading about any more winter. That’s when I made the only rational decision any genealogy fan could make.

I went back to the 1910 obituary that I had found in the newspaper for Elijah Poad since it also included this line: “He was 78 years of age and leaves, besides his brother in Helena, a brother in Dodgeville, Wis., a brother in England, a sister in Linden, Wis., and a son in Butte.” You see, while I have Elijah’s siblings in our family tree, I had no genealogy clues—until this obituary—as to where to search for them. Thank you, Mother Nature!

Researching Your Family Heirlooms: Gaudy Dutch Pottery

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post, Mary shows how old newspapers can help you better understand your family heirlooms, focusing on some Gaudy Dutch pottery she inherited from her grandmother.

The first step in compiling your family history begins in your home: gathering all the family documents, letters, photos, and heirlooms you can find. The goal of many genealogists is to go beyond the names and dates on their family tree; they want to get to know their ancestors as real people—the lives they led and the times they lived in.

Heirlooms help fill in some of your family’s stories—and in order to better understand these precious objects that have been passed down through the generations, research in old newspapers such as GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives can be really beneficial.

Pottery Heirloom from My Grandmother

Among the heirlooms from my grandmother’s estate were several items described as “Gaudy Dutch” pottery. There were several plates and an assortment of cups and saucers, each hand-painted and of a unique design.

photo of Gaudy Dutch pottery

Source: the Author’s personal collection

We divided these old pottery pieces among family members, without knowing their personal history.

Yes, we knew that they had passed from our great grandmother to her daughter, but nobody could ascertain how many generations of the family had owned them—much less used them to sip tea. At the time, I remember being impressed that these pieces had come all the way from the Netherlands.

History of Gaudy Dutch Pottery

However, after doing some newspaper research I realized that my assumption was incorrect: Gaudy Dutch pottery did not come from the Netherlands after all. Actually, this type of pottery was made in England for export to the American market, primarily between 1810-1820, with some examples made through 1842.

The style is known primarily as Gaudy Dutch, but similar styles can be found under other names, such as Gaudy Welsh and Gaudy Ironstone. Only 16 patterns of Gaudy Dutch were ever made: Butterfly, Carnation, Dahlia, Double Rose, Dove, Grape, Leaf, Oyster, Primrose, Single Rose, Strawflower, Sunflower, Urn, War Bonnet, Zinnia, and once called No Name. (Can you guess which pattern I have? See answer at bottom.)

You can view photos of Gaudy Dutch pottery and learn more here: Kovels Price Guides.

The descriptive term “gaudy” came from its Japanese Imari-style patterning, but the other half of the name, “Dutch,” derived its popularity from German settlers, known as Pennsylvania Dutch. Dutch did not indicate an origin from the Netherlands, but from Germany (as “Deutsch” means German). (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Dutch.)

The Dutch Never Made Gaudy Dutch (Pottery), Oregonian newspaper article 19 November 1978

Oregonian (Portland, Oregon), 19 November 1978, page 228

Researching Heirlooms in Newspapers

How can you use historical newspapers to research your family heirlooms? Well, for one thing, early advertisements provide a uniquely interesting environment to explore the history of heirlooms.

Although I knew that the name of my pottery was not originally “Gaudy Dutch,” I still searched by that keyword in very early newspapers—and quickly discovered absolutely nothing.

For my next queries I incorporated descriptions, such as “painted tea cups,” and these search results were a little more fruitful. Although I’ll never know for certain, I suspect the painted cups and saucers of this 1817 Massachusetts newspaper advertisement were for my type of earthenware.

pottery ad, Boston Daily Advertiser newspaper advertisement 4 February 1817

Boston Daily Advertiser (Boston, Massachusetts), 4 February 1817, page 3

Further newspaper archive queries into later time periods turned up a number of helpful articles, such as this one.

article about Gaudy Dutch pottery, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 8 March 1965

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 8 March 1965, section 3, page 7

Tea Time and Our Ancestors

How many cups of tea have been poured into my Gaudy Dutch teacup, I’ll never know—but I do know that the custom of tea drinking will forever be entwined in the fabric of American history.

Yes, there was a time, during the Boston Tea Party (1773), when Patriots hurled tea into Boston Harbor. But our American ancestors returned to imbibing their favorite non-alcoholic drink: tea. I like to think that this cup kept someone company on a cold winter’s night, was there during extended birthing of children, and even during the best of times!

I hope you’ll consider researching your family heirlooms in newspapers. You never know what you’ll find! If you do learn something interesting, share it with us in the comments section. We’d love to hear your story, and see if it inspires others.

What Gaudy Dutch Pattern Is It?

It is “Single Rose”; follow this link from Google’s image search to see the diversity of the “Single Rose” pattern of Gaudy Dutch pottery. To see other samples, search images by their specific pattern names.

photo of Gaudy Dutch "Single Rose" pottery

Source: the Author’s personal collection

Do you have special pottery and dishes passed down from your ancestors? Share with us in the comments.

6 Genealogy Projects to Interest Kids & Teens in Family History

Introduction: Duncan Kuehn is a professional genealogist with over eight years of client experience. She has worked on several well-known projects, such as “Who Do You Think You Are?” and researching President Barack Obama’s ancestry. In this guest blog post, Duncan describes six fun genealogy projects to help interest children and teenagers in family history.

Many of us want to share our passion for family history research with our children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews, and other young ones in our lives. This fulfills our innate need to leave a legacy behind, and to inform and guide the next generation. Not only is this sharing beneficial for the storyteller, it plays an important role in the life of the listener.

Why Pass Down Family Stories?

Family stories give children hope, courage, perspective, and greater understanding. They see that others have done hard things and come out the other side stronger (or at least still alive and kicking). “Uncle Bob had this exact experience and it turned out well for him.” It can provide perspective on life’s blessings and challenges. “What did people use to communicate before mobile phones and Facebook?” Sharing the stories of our ancestors can connect family members and encourage empathy and understanding for other people’s experiences. There is even evidence from recent psychological research supporting the idea that children with a better understanding of their family’s past possess more self-confidence.

But how can we have those magical moments with the young ones in our lives? Remember that when we share our passion for family history we don’t want to push others, but rather entice them and invite them to know more. While complex and in-depth genealogy research challenges may make us giddy, they aren’t nearly as exciting to “future researchers.” Start intriguing them with new ideas and family stories that will appeal to them at their level. Realize that not every effort will be a success every time. Some children are naturally more interested in family history than others. We should make an effort to reach all of the important children in our lives with genealogy in a way that makes sense to them.

1. Share Old Family Photos

Most children love pictures. Old family photos, and graphics from newspapers, are one way to interest children in family history research.

News of the World Told in Pictures, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 9 August 1922

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 9 August 1922, page 13

Smaller children have very short attention spans and are often highly visual.

2. Play Genealogy Games

They also love interactive games. When my children were young, I created two sets of cards with the pictures of their family members: themselves, siblings, parents, grandparents, aunts and uncles, cousins, great grandparents and even pets. Many of these people my children knew well, some lived far away, and others had already passed on. We would play matching, “Go Fish,” and other games with these small laminated photos. Our favorite was our own brand of the classic children’s game “Guess Who.” This taught them how to notice small details, the names of colors, and other important skills in addition to learning about family members. Eventually, we lost a few of the cards after my smallest son started sleeping with them. I didn’t mind because they had fulfilled the purpose of creating a bridge between generations.

3. Explore Old Newspaper Articles Together

Using newspaper articles about family members is another effective way to engage little children. These articles are often written in interesting and entertaining language. Even better, they are usually brief enough to accommodate children’s short attention spans. I grew up with some copies of newspaper articles featuring my grandfather. One article had a picture of my grandpa receiving a cake for his 12th birthday. I loved seeing a picture of him when he was a child and thought he must have been someone important to get his picture in the paper!  As a child, I didn’t know that many people had their picture in the paper.

In fact, I had several old newspaper articles that included pictures of my grandfather. One showed him and his beautiful sister singing together. Another picture showed his graduating class. And yet another photo was of him eating a burger covered in my grandma’s homemade barbeque sauce, recipe included.

Newspaper articles, such as those in GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives, add flavor to the details about our ancestors. People are more than names and dates; they have stories. These newspaper articles express that and gave me a better understanding of my grandpa even though I grew up visiting him every week.

Imagine how excited your children would be to find an old newspaper picture of their grandfather as a youth, printed long ago when he was a Boy Scout!

Named Omaha's Best (Boy) Scouts (Cezere Zampesi and Edward Brown), Omaha World Herald newspaper articles 26 August 1926

Omaha World Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), 26 August 1926, page 2

Teenagers often find old newspaper articles fascinating. I have searched for humorous or unusual articles by using the keywords “dear wife” or “dear husband” or even “funny” or “joke.”

Here are a few examples of what I found.

In this unusual example, a captured soldier in 1823 wrote his wife the day before his scheduled execution, explaining his death. She received his letter, and then decided to make the best of it by marrying another man. Well, that condemned soldier ended up being rescued, but he didn’t have the heart to go home and tell his wife the news, breaking up her new marriage!

letter written by a condemned soldier in 1823, Sentinel and Witness newspaper article 16 April 1823

Sentinel and Witness (Middletown, Connecticut), 16 April 1823, page 4

In this funny example, a husband’s practical joke on his wife backfired when he pretended he had fallen out of the bedroom window—and her response was not the scare he had hoped to cause. Hiding behind the curtain, he heard her say:

“Poor old Jim,” she quietly said. “He’s tumbled out of the window in his raggedest nightshirt. What a spectacle he’ll be when they find him in the morning!” Then she lay down again and went to sleep.

What did you do?

“Stood there like a fool for a minute or two and then sneaked into bed.”

article about a practical joke a husband pulled on his wife, Morning Olympian newspaper article 13 December 1900

Morning Olympian (Olympia, Washington), 13 December 1900, page 4

Children can also search for topics that they are interested in, such as trains, UFOs, scary stories, etc., on GenealogyBank’s search page by doing a keyword search.

Everyone loves a good ghost story. Despite the best efforts of 100 police, no one could identify the thumping sounds coming out of this haunted house in Chicago.

article about a haunted house in Chicago, Augusta Chronicle newspaper article 13 October 1922

Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), 13 October 1922, page 3

How about this eerie story, of the “horrible experience” of Mrs. Hart? She fell into a seven-hour trance and everyone thought she was dead. Although she couldn’t move or speak, she was aware of everything the entire time—heard herself pronounced dead; listened to the fading footsteps of her loved ones after saying their goodbyes and walking away from her bedside; and was aware the undertaker was about to embalm her…when she suddenly woke up!

The Horrible Experience of Mrs. Hart at East St. Louis, Alive but Believed Dead, Rockford Republic newspaper article 17 January 1900

Rockford Republic (Rockford, Illinois), 17 January 1900, page 3

4. Compile a Family Storybook or Scrapbook

You can even write your own short stories about your ancestors, and add photos, to share with your children. I created a genealogy book, with both photos and short stories, to showcase our family history. The family stories don’t need to be long or even have a moral to impart. In my book I included a letter written by a neighbor of one of my 6th great grandmother’s. It talked about how my ancestor, Ann Quick, would take a hasty dip in the nearby river every morning, ice filled or not, to strengthen her “constitution.” My kids now refer to a fast, cold shower as an “Ann Quick shower” to which we all reply, “Good for the constitution!” It is a small story, but it makes her personal to my kids. I used to read this book as bedtime stories for my children.

Children enjoy seeing pictures of their ancestors when they were little kids.

photo of the McBan twins, Baltimore American newspaper article 28 December 1922

Baltimore American (Baltimore, Maryland), 28 December 1922, page 9

5. Create a Family Recipe Book

If the children like to cook, have them collect family recipes and make a book to send out to friends and relatives. If they can’t find old family recipes, use ones that the family loves now and look through the newspaper for other recipes that sound interesting.

6. Join a Volunteer Project for Genealogy

Older children and teens that show an interest in family history can get involved in fun genealogy-related projects. For example, they can do indexing (get more information here: https://familysearch.org/indexing/). Indexing means reading original records and entering the information into a set form so that it is available for searching. This is crucial for making documents easy to find. FamilySearch’s highlighted projects for this year include obituaries, which are typically typed and fun to read. Many people I have talked to have mentioned that indexing can be a fun addiction! Other websites also have volunteer projects. One that comes to mind is BillionGraves. This site lets you download an app to your smart phone. Then you go to a local cemetery and photograph the headstones. These images and accompanying index are made free for anyone to view.

Here is an example of a recent—and lighthearted—obituary that would be fun to index.

obituary for Mary Mullaney, North Shore Now newspaper article 12 September 2013

North Shore Now (Bayside, Wisconsin), 12 September 2013, page 22

Some teens are interested in helping with genealogical research. Many of my peers began their own researching experience when 12-14 years old. Not only do they have excellent computer skills to find information, they also naturally question everything. While annoying to parents, it is actually a critical research strategy. A teen’s natural ability to question and seek to understand can help you to see your research in a different light. Guide them along by answering their questions, leading them to interesting resources, and gently nudging them to expand their thinking and learn more. Soon they will be showing you how to do things! My 15-year-old son just showed me a great new mapping tool that he found even though he insists that he “isn’t really interested in genealogy.”

Tip: Remember to Make Family History Fun!

If your goal is to interest your children in family history, then the key is keeping the activities fun and interesting. Never push them too far beyond their interest level or they will learn to dread the activity. I grew up hating history class in school, yet I graduated from college with a history degree. How did that happen? The short answer is that I loved to hear the stories my grandma told me. What impact will your family stories have on the rising generation?

Researching the Not-So-Romantic History of Eloping

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena searches old newspapers to find stories of our ancestors eloping—and discovers that the word “elope” meant different things at different times.

Anyone who has ever planned a traditional American wedding knows this feeling. As you arrange the wedding, there comes a point after trying on wedding dresses, choosing attendants without making anyone angry, arguing over a manageable guest list, deciding between dried-out chicken meals, and listening to the “good advice” of family and friends, that the thought comes to you:

What if we just eloped?

For some, eloping is a sweet temptation that eventually gets pushed aside in favor of saying “I do” in front of family and friends. For others it’s an idea that makes sense. The cost of a wedding, having been previously married, older brides and grooms, or the stress from trying to negotiate a party that involves close family members who may be divorced and don’t like each other—any of these factors can make anyone want to skip the formalities and go straight to the courthouse or to a Gretna Green.*

So we know why people elope now—but why did our ancestors elope? Well it turns out that in many cases, our ancestors eloped for some of the same reasons people do today. Money, especially during the Great Depression or times of war, made the expense of a traditional wedding impractical. In some cases, the family may have objected to their daughter or son’s intended and so eloping seemed to be the only answer. And of course there may be more nefarious reasons to elope as well, reasons that are all exposed in old newspapers such as GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives.

What Does It Mean to Elope?

If you’re researching your ancestors’ elopement in old newspapers, then one thing to consider is that the meanings of words can change throughout time. For example, the word elope can be traced back to 1338, when it was defined as the act of a wife leaving her husband to run off with her lover. This meaning continued until 1800, when elope came to mean lovers who run away to get married to each other, not to get away from a spouse.** Aside from the meaning of running off with a lover, elope can also mean to slip away or leave.

“Pay No Debts” Ad for Runaway Wife

As we search old newspapers it becomes apparent that our modern idea of eloping, maybe influenced by classic love stories, is different from what eloping meant in older times.

Consider this article from a 1793 Maryland newspaper. It is an advertisement placed by Michael Humbert, who states that his wife Elizabeth has eloped for a second time. He warns against:

all Persons, of either trusting or lending her, on my account, as I am determined to pay no debts by her contracted.

ad from Michael Humbert warning he will not pay the debts of his runaway wife, Washington Spy newspaper advertisement 31 May 1793

Washington Spy (Elizabethtown, Maryland), 31 May 1793, page 4

He additionally warns readers:

All persons whatever are hereby positively forbid to harbour her on any account whatever, as they shall answer for the contrary at their peril.

This type of advertisement is similar to ones you might see in 20th century newspapers, in which a person proclaims that they are only responsible for their own debts and not those of other family members. In the case of Michael Humbert’s ad, the word elope most likely means that she has just left him, not necessarily that she went off with a lover—but maybe…

Age Doesn’t Matter in Elopements?

Although eloping is sometimes a romantic notion, other times it might just be criminal. Consider the following story about a married man who runs off with his teenaged coworker. And in case you tend to think that nothing bad happened in the “good old days,” this article is from an 1895 Minnesota newspaper (though I’m sure there are earlier examples).

Eloped at Fifteen--A Married Man (A. H. Garfield) of Aberdeen Said to Have Eloped with a Pretty Girl (Bessie Moore) in Her Teens, Duluth News-Tribune newspaper article 13 August 1895

Duluth News-Tribune (Duluth, Minnesota), 13 August 1895, page 1

A music dealer named A. H. Garfield left “an estimable wife and three children” to elope with his “pretty assistant” Bessie Moore, who was only 15. The article concludes:

Garfield has committed a penitentiary offense, and if caught will certainly receive all the law allows, possibly more, as the people here are very indignant.

He’s Not Right for You

Obviously, one reason to elope is that your family doesn’t share your enthusiasm for your beloved. This simple 1905 notice about a Kentucky couple who ran off to Cairo, Illinois, echoes that feeling.

Eloped (J. A. Stanley and Jennie Lee Sands) to Illinois, Lexington Herald newspaper article 16 March 1905

Lexington Herald (Lexington, Kentucky), 16 March 1905, page 8

Where Did She Go?

While one of the definitions of the word “eloped” is running away, in today’s world those who elope may simply go to a courthouse or a different location to get married. But in some cases we find in old newspaper articles that those who disappeared were thought of as having possibly eloped with a lover.

In the case reported in this 1901 Rhode Island newspaper, the mystery of where Maggie went was solved, and luckily it was a happier ending than the one her family and friends had imagined: she hadn’t been murdered or kidnapped—she had eloped with John Watson and gone East.

Maggie (Hoel) Eloped (with John Watson), Pawtucket Times newspaper article 1 January 1901

Pawtucket Times (Pawtucket, Rhode Island), 1 January 1901, page 1

Genealogy Research Tips

Did someone in your family elope? If you are unable to find marriage records in the place your ancestor lived, consider that they may have eloped, either for “romantic” reasons or because of practicalities like finances. Expand your search to include known Gretna Greens or nearby towns. Don’t assume that an ancestor who eloped left no records. Marriage licenses and newspapers published after the fact can help you fill in the story of your ancestor’s married life.

________________

*To learn more about Gretna Greens, see my article “Gin Marriages, Gretna Greens & Your Ancestor’s Marriage Records” on the GenealogyBank Blog.

**Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, by Robert K. Barnhart (Editor). Chambers. (1999).

Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, aka Frederick Douglass

Introduction: Scott Phillips is a genealogical historian and owner of Onward To Our Past® genealogy services. In this guest blog post, Scott searches old newspapers to learn about one of the great figures in American history: the African American abolitionist, Frederick Douglass.

I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong.

—Frederick Douglass

Exactly 119 years ago today, on 20 February 1895, America suddenly and unexpectedly lost one of its most impressive abolitionists, reformers, orators, writers, statesmen, and advocates for equal rights of all people: Frederick Douglass.

photo of Frederick Douglass

Photo: Frederick Douglass. Credit: Wikipedia.

Wanting to know more about this great African American, I turned to GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives to look for old articles to learn about his life and times. I was not disappointed with my research findings.

This obituary of Frederick Douglas appeared in an 1895 New York newspaper. All of us genealogy fans can always appreciate a well-written obituary, and this certainly is one.

Death of Frederick Douglass, Irish American Weekly newspaper obituary 25 February 1895

Irish American Weekly (New York, New York), 25 February 1895, page 4

Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey

Born about 1817 as an African American slave on the eastern shore of Maryland, Frederick Douglass was born with the name of Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. He proceeded to spend his life breaking just about every mold people tried to force him to fit.

Runaway Slave & Man of Many Names

Douglass tried to escape slavery twice before he was finally successful, but once free, he was a wanted man. As a result, he had to change his name from Bailey, to Johnson, and then to Douglass—and as genealogy fans we can appreciate Douglass writing his autobiography, which helps us understand his changing name history.

Rising to Be a Famous American Abolitionist

Just how impressive was Frederick Douglass? Take a look at this article from a 1909 Chicago newspaper with its subheading calling Douglass “…One of the Sublimest and Most Noble Characters…”

The 92nd Anniversary of the Birth of Frederick Douglass, Broad Ax newspaper article 13 February 1909

Broad Ax (Chicago, Illinois), 13 February 1909, page 1

Douglass rose from the hardship of being born into slavery and the cruelty of being removed from his mother’s care as an infant (which was a customary practice in slavery at the time), to finally managing to escape to freedom—and became, at the time, America’s premier African American voice against slavery. One of my favorite quotes by Douglass is captured in this article from a 1952 Kansas newspaper. It is short, but really powerful:

I know of no rights of race superior to the rights of humanity.

Frederick Douglass' Statement, Plaindealer newspaper article 11 July 1952

Plaindealer (Kansas City, Kansas), 11 July 1952, page 7

Facing Abolitionist Opponents

While we all wish this was the case throughout American history, we all know it certainly was not. For an unvarnished view of just how challenging Frederick Douglass’s anti-slavery stand was, I strongly suggest that you look up and read this article from a 1930 Kansas newspaper.

The Truth about the Great Frederick Douglass, Plaindealer newspaper article 30 August 1930

Plaindealer (Topeka, Kansas), 30 August 1930, section: illustrated feature section, page 3

Running an entire page, this article often graphically relates what kinds of perils Douglass faced in his quest to speak out against slavery. Here is one horrifying example:

At Pendleton, Ind., the mob tore down the platform on which he was speaking. When the mob attacked him, he defended himself with a club until his arm was broken and he was battered into unconsciousness. When he regained it, with is arm in a sling, he insisted on speaking again.

Strong Advocate for Women’s Rights

Slavery was not the only cause that Frederick Douglass fought for. As you can read in this article from an 1848 Washington, D.C., newspaper, he supported the Women’s Rights Movement as well. Douglass spoke (he was the only African American invited to speak) at the first Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, where he continued his strong advocacy for equal rights for women.

article about Frederick Douglass speaking at the first Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, Daily National Intelligencer newspaper article 16 August 1848

Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), 16 August 1848, page 2

Frederick Douglass Meets President Lincoln

This article from an 1864 Louisiana newspaper reported on Douglass meeting with President Abraham Lincoln. In a speech he gave afterward, Douglass said:

Now, you will want to know how I was impressed by him [Lincoln]. He impressed me as being just what every one of you have been in the habit of calling him—an honest man.

article about Frederick Douglass meeting President Abraham Lincoln, New Orleans Tribune newspaper article 26 July 1864

New Orleans Tribune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 26 July 1864, page 2

This old article from an 1891 Nebraska newspaper reported that Frederick Douglass advised President Lincoln on the Emancipation Proclamation, and was appointed the U.S. Minster to Hayti (now Haiti).

He (Frederick Douglass) Advised the (Emancipation) Proclamation, Omaha World Herald newspaper article 7 August 1891

Omaha World Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), 7 August 1891, page 4

His Home a National Historic Site

Moving toward more current times, the Douglass family home, known as Cedar Hill, became a National Historic Site and a part of our National Park Service, as you can read in this article from a 1972 Wisconsin newspaper.

(Frederick) Douglass Honored, Milwaukee Star newspaper article 24 February 1972

Milwaukee Star (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), 24 February 1972, page 10

Frederick Douglass’ Newspaper

Note: one of the historical newspapers in GenealogyBank’s collection is the very newspaper edited and published by Frederick Douglass himself! It is the Frederick Douglass’ Paper (Rochester, New York), where you can read entire issues of this newspaper from 1847 to 1860.

I’d encourage you to take some time, delve into the newspapers of GenealogyBank’s online collection, and really investigate Frederick Douglass, one of America’s finest!

‘Ah-Ha!’ Moment: GenealogyBank Member’s Favorite Family Find

Introduction: Scott Phillips is a genealogical historian and owner of Onward To Our Past® genealogy services. In this guest blog post, Scott tells an incredible story of a brother and sister who bumped into each other—after an absence of 42 years—and as each began telling stories about their childhood, it dawned on each other that the “stranger” they were talking to was actually their sibling!

All of you that follow me here on the GenealogyBank blog, on my website at Onward To Our Past®, or on the Onward To Our Past® Facebook page, know how much I love all the genealogy information found in the massive newspaper database of GenealogyBank.com. Over and over these newspapers have been the source of a wide variety of truly amazing “Ah-Ha!” genealogy moments for me, such as the time I discovered a newspaper article that revealed the occupation of my great grandfather. Another time, again thanks to an old newspaper article, I was thrilled to find a photo of an ancestor that is the only known photograph we have of him.

I recently asked the good folks at GenealogyBank.com what they heard from their subscribers using their service—did other family historians have similar genealogy research success stories?

In just a few minutes I received the following testimonial from a member of the GenealogyBank.com support team. This was written by M. F. of New Hampshire:

I use GenealogyBank to search out additional “color” to add to the family tree, so that there is more than just names, dates, and places. I love looking at the anniversary stories, the wedding announcements, and the gossip columns. When I found this story involving some members of the family tree, I just had to share with you.

A Serendipitous Family Reunion

When I checked out the article M. F. had found, I could plainly see why this GenealogyBank.com subscriber was so excited.

Brother (Simard) and Sister (Marquis) Meet after 42 Years, Boston Herald newspaper article 9 August 1939

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 9 August 1939, page 26

Not only was this story extremely moving about a brother and sister serendipitously meeting, after 42 years, but also there was a marvelous family photograph of both the brother and sister in the article.

photo of siblings August Simard and Adele Marquis reuniting, Boston Herald newspaper article 9 August 1939

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 9 August 1939, page 26

Talk about an “Ah-Ha!” moment! Not only a great family reunion story, but also a photo of the siblings, details about the lives of both individuals, and the fact that there was another brother living, at that time, in Green Island, Canada. It must have been amazing when the brothers and their sister got together after more than 40 years! I hope they had a nice big pot of tea and plenty of scones on hand, because I am thinking they had an incredible amount to share.

The touching family story shared by M. F. is a wonderful example of just one of the hidden treasures that await all of us who love genealogy and family history in the more than 6,500 historical newspapers of GenealogyBank.com that stretch from 1690 to Today and cover all 50 of our United States. Perhaps the best part of all is the newspaper reporter’s adherence to those wonderful 5 W’s of good newspaper reporting that give us genealogy fans answers to those always crucial questions of Who, What, Where, When, and Why!

Members: Share Your Favorite “Ah-Ha!” Moments

So let me know in the comments section below: what has been your favorite “Ah-Ha!” moment from GenealogyBank.com? Thanks! I bet you have some great family discoveries!

Hammet Achmet: Washington’s Waiter & Revolutionary War Patriot

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post, Mary presents the fascinating story of Hammet Achmet, who grew up a slave in George Washington’s household, served as a drummer in the Revolutionary War, then became a freedman and drum maker.

Piecing together the life of a patriot from the American Revolutionary War is challenging—but piecing together the life of an African American minority patriot is even more so. That is, unless the person distinguished himself in a special way.

Such was the case with Hammet (or Hamet) Achmet (c. 1752, Africa – 1842, Connecticut), who was captured and enslaved as a young child, and later became something of a celebrity—having served as George Washington’s personal waiter.

George Washington’s Slave & Close Companion

Achmet grew up in the Washington family’s household as a black slave. However, he was later freed, either for serving in the American Revolutionary War, or according to the terms of George Washington’s will.

In his youth, Achmet had the responsibility of holding his horse as Washington prepared to ride. Achmet was affable and the two of them shared a life-long relationship. As an adult, he attended the Washington family at meals. After George Washington’s death in 1799, Achmet was given a lock of the president’s hair, which he kept in a tiny silver box shaped like a coffin. This treasure, along with one of Washington’s waistcoats and a small rapier (dress sword) with the initials G.W., were heirlooms Achmet carefully guarded throughout his life.

As an African American slave he was never taught to read or write, but Achmet was very intelligent. He could speak four or five languages, a useful skill for anyone in early America with its melting pot of immigrants. Although of a diminutive size (4′ 6”), Achmet served his new country faithfully as a Revolutionary War drummer.

In 1900 his life was chronicled in a book by Emilie T. Stedman, whose family knew him personally. Stedman’s book makes for marvelous historical reading and features her original drawings. You can read her book for free online, Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington, here: https://archive.org/details/hammetachmetserv00sted.

photo of the cover of Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington”

In addition to the interesting information about him in Stedman’s book, we can expand our understanding of Achmet’s story with newspaper accounts that chronicle his fascinating life.

An African American Drummer in the Revolutionary War

Many people today assume that a drummer’s duties were easy during the Revolutionary War—but the music corps, including fifers, drummers, and other musicians, toiled for long days with complicated assignments. Several guides still exist which describe their schedule and music. (See link at the end of this article.)

Up before dawn, the war musicians signaled the wake-up, or “Reveille,” by playing “The Drummer’s Call.” If the troops were going on march, this musical selection reverted to one called “The General.” Because they never knew if the enemy was listening, these easily understood auditory signals reduced the need to call out orders to the troops.

The military musicians had to learn at least a dozen routines because each separate activity, from Roll Call to Assembly, had its own special composition. There were even unique sets for officer activities, and a special one for the Retreat, during which the men received their evening’s orders.

drawing of a drum and swords from Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington”

Illustration: from Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington.” Credit: Library of Congress.

Drummers accompanied or led the troops to battle, acting much like modern-day cheerleaders at a pep rally. Imagine having to focus on playing your music correctly, avoiding injury, and inspiring the trembling soldiers to face the enemy with determined energy! Being a drummer during battle was no easy task, and Achmet performed his responsibilities as well as the best of them.

Achmet Receives Revolutionary War Pension

After the Revolutionary War, Achmet applied for and received a pension (S.38107). His first request was done as a resident of Connecticut on 28 June 1818.

In his pension application, Achmet stated that he had served under Capt. Throop in Col. Return Jonathan Meig’s regiment, and signed the statement with his mark. Supporting statements were made by veterans who remembered seeing Achmet at the Valley Forge Winter Encampment; Phillipsburg, New Jersey; the Battle of Stony Point, New York (16 July 1779); and elsewhere. One wrote this about Achmet:

I saw the same little black drummer who is now before me, marching with said division of said army.

The pension was eventually granted on the basis that Achmet was an invalid (or too frail to work).

The Drum Maker

Once Achmet was a free man, he made his living manufacturing drums and toys, and selling used shoes to a gun factory.

text from Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington”

From: Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington.” Credit: Library of Congress.

Some remembered that Achmet would wear his old uniform, and his persistent drumming was often heard. He liked to recount stories about the dinners and grand company held in “Massa Washington’s mansion,” and sometimes showed off the president’s waistcoat.

Hammet Achmet’s Family Life

Achmet’s first wife was named Jane (c. 1774 – 1827), by whom there was a child. Jane was much younger than her husband but died before he did.

Their marriage was sometimes a rocky one, as we can infer from this historical newspaper advertisement in which Achmet is warning the public not to trust his wife, stating that he will not pay any more of the debts she incurs!

ad placed by Hamet Achmet warning he would not pay his wife's debts, Middlesex Gazette newspaper advertisement 5 July 1821

Middlesex Gazette (Middletown, Connecticut), 5 July 1821, page 3

When Jane sensed her impending death, “she prepared her shroud and mourning for her husband and granddaughter.” This obituary noted she was a professor of religion (meaning a type of preacher, not to be confused with a professor at a school).

obituary for Jane Achmet, Middlesex Gazette newspaper article 2 May 1827

Middlesex Gazette (Middletown, Connecticut), 2 May 1827, page 3

Achmet’s second wife, whose name might have been Ann, was Caucasian with darkened skin.

text from Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington”

From: Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington.” Credit: Library of Congress.

They married at the Methodist parsonage. This young bride had a temper, and after one fight she cut off Achmet’s curls while he slept—a serious affront, as this was rarely done.

Here is Stedman’s drawing depicting Achmet’s cottage.

drawing of Hammet Achmet's cottage, from Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington”

Illustration: from Emilie Stedman’s book, “Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington.” Credit: Library of Congress.

A Colorful Personality

Stedman’s book provides many details about Achmet and recounts fun anecdotes, including how he responded when asked to join Phineas T. Barnum’s Circus.

To learn the answer, read the story here: https://archive.org/details/hammetachmetserv00sted

Achmet’s Obituary

When Hammett (or Hamet) Achmet passed away, this same obituary appeared in numerous newspapers.

obituary for Hamet Achmet, Boston Courier newspaper article 5 December 1842

Boston Courier (Boston, Massachusetts), 5 December 1842, page 3

Research Links