Native American Genealogy: Research Tips & Resources

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this blog post, Mary describes a special collection of Native American newspapers, and other online resources to help with your Native American family history research.

One of the challenging quests for family historians is researching indigenous American ancestry.

painting of the Seneca Chief Cornplanter by F. Bartoli, 1796

Painting: Seneca Chief Cornplanter, by F. Bartoli, 1796. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

It would be a genealogist’s dream come true to find documentation in court houses, churches or within tribal records—but alas, that’s often not possible. And when you do find documentation, it may be confusing or inaccurate, as shown in the following examples.

The Name “Refused to Answer”

This discovery came about while researching census records of South Florida. Members of local Native American tribes were asked for their family members’ names. Some, fearing the intent of the census taker, refused to answer—and as a result, “Refused to Answer” was entered as their name.

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Nicknames

Then there are descriptive nicknames bestowed by non-Native American friends and acquaintances. In all likelihood, they were created in order to overcome hard to pronounce names or complicated spellings.

Ever hear of John Abeel or John O’Bail? These were two appellations given to a Seneca chief known as Cornplanter, but that wasn’t his real birth name. Cornplanter is reportedly a translation of his tribal name, spelled in a variety of ways including Gar-Yan-Wah-Gah or Gaiänt’wak.

obituary for the Seneca Chief Cornplanter, Commercial Advertiser newspaper article 4 March 1837

Commercial Advertiser (New York, New York), 4 March 1837, page 2

Legends May Not Be Legends

Ever hear the expression “to lie like Sam Hyde (or Hide)”? Thought to be a legendary character, Sam was supposedly a Native American chief in New England whose stories grew to the size of an exaggerated “fish” or tall tale. Every time they were exchanged, the claims grew, including in this report from 1806 about an amazingly large squash that was “nothing to Sam Hyde’s Water-Melon.”

article about Sam Hyde, Portsmouth Oracle newspaper article 8 November 1806

Portsmouth Oracle (Portsmouth, New Hampshire), 8 November 1806, page 3

Newspapers, you’ve got to love them! Not only do they repeat regional folklore and legendary tales, but they also serve to disprove them. Take, for example, Sam Hyde’s Wikipedia article, which has a number of inaccuracies. Part of this e-piece reports:

Sam Hide (or Hyde) is a historic or apocryphal character in the folklore of New England, used in the folk saying “to lie like Sam Hide.” There is no record of the death of a Sam Hide in the records of Dedham, Massachusetts, though he is said to have died in 1732…

Should we be surprised that his official death was not recorded in town records? No, because as a member of a tribe, he could not have been considered an official resident. However, GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives prove that Hyde was not the figment of someone’s imagination. He was real, and he died on 5 January 1732 in Dedham.

obituary for Sam Hide, Boston Gazette newspaper article 17 January 1732

Boston Gazette (Boston, Massachusetts), 17 January 1732, page 2

Federal Archives and Records Center

You can also find newspaper articles about resources for researching Native American ancestry, such as this article about the Federal Archives and Records Center at Fort Worth, Texas.

This interesting historical news article reports a wealth of information, including:

The 27,000 cubic feet of permanent records are kept in a huge warehouse building six football fields long, and on row after row of stacks stretching 13 shelves high. They include federal court records from a five-state region, along with documents relating to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the 60 tribes the government moved through Oklahoma at one time or another.

article about the Federal Archives and Records Center, Times-Picayune newspaper article 22 March 1981

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 22 March 1981, page 180

Native American Newspaper Research

So how can historical newspapers guide you along the elusive path of researching Native American Roots?

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As seen in the above examples, there is information found in newspapers of general interest, particularly for the better known Indians. In addition, we are pleased to report that GenealogyBank is actively building its collection of Native American newspapers.

Currently, these newspaper titles are available:

Other Native American Genealogy Research Resources

  • DNA Studies

If you are curious as to whether you have Native American ancestry, review the information from the American Indian DNA Project (hosted by FamilyTreeDNA).

  • Dawes Commission & Dawes Rolls

A common starting point for researchers is the “Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes,” known as the Dawes Rolls. Organized in 1893, a government commission established a mechanism to enroll residents of the Indian Territory (now part of Oklahoma) for government purposes. This serves as a type of census, and although this government compilation does not encompass every person of Native American ancestry, you may be fortunate to find your ancestors in one of the online databases.

  • This Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Indian Affairs website clarifies some common misconceptions about research:

“When people believe they may be of American Indian ancestry, they immediately write or telephone the nearest Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) office for information. Many people think that the BIA retrieves genealogical information from a massive national Indian registry or comprehensive computer database. This is not true. Most BIA offices, particularly the central [headquarters, Washington, D.C.] and area [field] offices, do not keep individual Indian records and the BIA does not maintain a national registry. The BIA does not conduct genealogical research for the public.”

  • This National Archives and Records Administration website reports:

“Among the billions of historical records housed at the National Archives throughout the country, researchers can find information relating to American Indians from as early as 1774 through the mid 1990s.”

  • Tribal Genealogy Research Resources

Many tribes maintain their own websites. If you suspect you are of a particular descent, go to the source. Many official tribe websites have lists of genealogy resources such as this page on Cherokee.org. There are also family research services that specialize in specific tribal genealogies such as Cherokee Roots, which can “offer expert assistance in finding your family’s connection to the Cherokee People.”

Related Native American Genealogy Articles & Resources:

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Old Fashioned Thanksgiving Recipes in the Newspaper

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog article, Gena searches old newspapers to find some of our ancestors’ Thanksgiving dishes, and shares those old fashioned recipes.

I’ve purchased some new pots and pans and started shopping for the food for our Thanksgiving meal. Are you ready? The bigger question is: what recipes will you be serving at your Thanksgiving feast? While your dinner recipes may be old hat by now, home cooks have always looked for recipe ideas even for this most traditional meal. Luckily for previous generations, the newspaper helped with the planning by providing plenty of Thanksgiving recipes—and by searching GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives, I’ve retrieved some of these old fashioned Thanksgiving recipes to share with you.

Lettuce Soup and Cranberry Water Ice?

This 1922 newspaper article from Olympia, Washington, remarks: “Below will be found a menu for the Thanksgiving Day dinner, which is published as an aid in arranging the greatest typical American feast of the year.” While some of the recipes are familiar, the recipe for Lettuce Soup might be a new one to you.

Thanksgiving Recipes, Morning Olympian newspaper article 19 November 1922

Morning Olympian (Olympia, Washington), 19 November 1922, page 7

Let’s face it, for many of us the Thanksgiving meal is pretty standard fare year after year. According to this 1912 article from Trenton, New Jersey, “The usual dishes present no difficulties to the good cook.” So the article, true to its title, provides “new” recipes to try on that annual feast day. Do you like cranberries? Tired of the same old cranberry sauce? This article offers a Cranberry Water Ice recipe that involves pouring a teacupful of hot, but not boiling, water over a quart of plump cranberries. Then cook the mixture until soft and reduced. Once cool, add the juice of a “good sized lemon, a sirup (sic) made of a quart of boiling water and two capfuls of granulated sugar cooked until it thickens. Stir well and freeze to the consistency of water ice.” Other recipes are included in this article that features a rather interesting photo of a child holding a dead upside-down turkey.

Thanksgiving Recipes That Every Woman Doesn't Know, Trenton Evening Times newspaper article 17 November 1912

Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, New Jersey), 17 November 1912, page 21

Dressing or Stuffing?

You say dressing, I say stuffing… So do you serve dressing or stuffing with your turkey? Most likely your use of the terms “dressing” or “stuffing” depends on where you live. Typically if you live in the South, you refer to that particular popular Thanksgiving side dish as “dressing.” No matter if you say dressing or stuffing, it most likely includes a variety of ingredients such as meats (like sausage or oysters), nuts, breads (cornbread or stale sourdough), and assorted vegetables (celery, onions and even mashed potatoes), spices, and liquid. For some, no Thanksgiving turkey is complete without it being “stuffed,” a practice that is losing popularity with today’s food-safety conscious cooks.

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I must admit, much to most readers’ chagrin, my stuffing typically comes out of a box. This cooking convenience started with a U.S. patent (US 3870803) filed in 1971 by Ruth Siems and others from General Foods, when she invented a convenient way to prepare a quick stuffing based on the size of the bread crumbs. However, for those who opt for the homemade variety, the stuffing recipe is typically a source of pride. Want to try something different this year? In this Oyster Dressing recipe the directions are fairly simple. If you don’t like oysters, try the accompanying Chestnut Dressing.

Thanksgiving Recipes, Northern Christian Advocate newspaper article 14 November 1907

Northern Christian Advocate (Syracuse, New York), 14 November 1907, page 14

Thanksgiving Memories

One of my favorite Thanksgiving articles has to be this one from a 1935 edition of the Times-Picayune, a New Orleans newspaper, in which people submit a recipe and an accompanying Thanksgiving memory. A recipe for Baked Rabbit submitted by Mrs. O. Le R. Gofrrth includes a Civil War memory of having to improvise when there was no turkey to be had. “Ever since a cold and dreary Thanksgiving Day during the War Between the States, when the turkeys had been given to the Southern forces, and there were no wild ones to be had in Tidewater, Va. …No turkeys or other fowls, but there were rabbits in the woods.”

In the same article, Mrs. E. M. Williams shares an old recipe for Popcorn Custard and Squash Pie that she introduces by writing: “This is a delicious dessert for Thanksgiving, because it dates back to the ancient days when one branch of our family lived in Maine. The recipe came from there and has been handed down for several generations, so that it is a real traditional recipe.”

Traditional Thanksgiving Recipes Given by Winners, Times-Picayune newspaper article 23 November 1935

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 23 November 1935, page 22

Another reason why I love this historical newspaper article is the grocery store advertisement found on the same page. Picone’s Complete Food Store sells turkeys for 28 cents a pound, 2 dozen oysters for 15 cents and “freshly killed” rabbits for “20 cents up.” These food prices give us a sense of what Thanksgiving dinner cost a family in 1935. To convert historic prices to today’s values, see the website Measuring Worth.

ad for Picone’s Complete Food Store, Times-Picayune newspaper advertisement 23 November 1935

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 23 November 1935, page 22

Another article found in the same newspaper 11 years later demonstrates that, depending on where you live and the time period, the idea of a “traditional” Thanksgiving differs. Consider this Thanksgiving menu shared by Mrs. W. A. Dees from when she was at a “camp” at La Branch near Lake Pontchartrain that includes uniquely Louisiana cuisine.

Thanksgiving in Camp with Louisiana Game, Times-Picayune newspaper article 23 November 1946

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 23 November 1946, page 17

Thanksgiving is about celebrating with family and friends, and whether that is with a turkey or fried frog legs and squirrel pie, the food served helps everyone enjoy the day and the company.

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What Are Your Favorite Thanksgiving Recipes?

Share your Thanksgiving recipes with us. Whether they are old traditional recipes or new ones you’ve incorporated into your annual dinner, we’d love to hear about them. Join us on Pinterest and pin your recipe to our board, Old Fashioned Family Recipes. Simply request an invite to post to our group recipe board. Not on Pinterest? No problem; share your recipes in the comments below.

Happy Thanksgiving to you and your family!

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Are You Sure That Is How to Spell Your Ancestor’s Name?

Portraits of my Starbird ancestors hang on our wall on the landing at the top of the staircase. Over the years I have chained the family back from Martha Jane (Starbird) Richmond (1836-1905) to Robert Starbird (1782- ) to Moses Starbird (1743-1815) to John Starbird (1701-1753) to Thomas Starbird (1660-1723).

photo of the Starbird family

Photo: Starbird family. Source: Thomas Jay Kemp.

All of them lived in Dover, New Hampshire, at some time in their lives, and by the 19th century several of the Starbird lines were living in Gray, Maine.

Looking in the deep Historical Newspaper Archives of GenealogyBank, I can quickly find multiple Starbird articles from across centuries of American history.

Enter Last Name

For example, here is a probate notice regarding Catharine Starbird, widow of Moses Starbird, published in 1838.

article about a probate proceeding involving Catharine Starbird, Portland Weekly Advertiser newspaper article 1 May 1838

Portland Weekly Advertiser (Portland, Maine), 1 May 1838, page 1

Here is an article about John Starbird (1742-1802), who served in the Continental Army. Both he and his brother (my ancestor) Moses Starbird (1743-1815) fought at Valley Forge during the Revolutionary War.

article about John Starbird, Massachusetts Spy newspaper article 30 December 1779

Massachusetts Spy (Worcester, Massachusetts), 30 December 1779, page 3

So far so good.

Their name was “Starbird” and I am finding “Starbird” articles in the old newspapers.
Good. This is straightforward.

FamilySearch recently added to their site the “England and Wales, Birth Registration Index, 1837-2008.” Great—an index to all of the births in England. I thought: let me search there to see if I can determine where in England the Starbird family came from.

This should be easy family tree research.

Bang.

screenshot of a search on FamilySearch for the surname "Starbird"

Source: FamilySearch

What? There was only one “Starbird” birth in all of England, going all the way back to 1837?

How could that be?

Looking deeper into GenealogyBank, I found this old obituary notice.

obituary for John Starboard, Weekly Eastern Argus newspaper article 26 April 1805

Weekly Eastern Argus (Portland, Maine), 26 April 1805, page

This is for a son of John “Starboard” from Gray, Maine.
Oh—that’s it.
The name could have been spelled “Starbird” or “Starboard.”

When I think of it—I pronounce both words exactly the same way.

Enter Last Name

So—let’s do a quick double-check in the FamilySearch index to British birth records with this new spelling.

This time the search results were zero.

Zero “Starboard” births and only one “Starbird” birth—what is going on here?

I can find a ton of “Starbird” references in America but none in Britain.
Is there another spelling of the surname?

I have seen where some genealogists have suggested that Thomas Starbird (1660-1723) of Dover, New Hampshire, was the son of Edward Starbuck (1604-1690) who was also from Dover.

Would Thomas really have changed his name from Starbuck to Starbird?

Alfred A. Starbird, author of Genealogy of the Starbird-Starbard Family (Burlington, Vermont: The Lane Press), looked at this—especially since another Starbird historian said that Thomas Starbird had changed his name from Starbuck—but concluded “nothing has been found to support this claim.”

The title of his book gives us another variant spelling of this surname: “Starbard.” So, I tried that spelling in the FamilySearch—again zero references.

So—what about the spelling “Starbuck”?
I repeated the search, and that spelling produced over 5,000 English birth records.

Is it that simple—Thomas simply changed his name from Starbuck to Starbird?
Would that be a logical name change?
Is there another explanation?

Have any of our readers found a record proving who the parents of Thomas Starbird (1660-1723) of Dover, New Hampshire, were? If so, I would like to know.

Do you know any current men named Starbird or Starbuck who are willing to take a DNA test? That might be the only way we find the answer to this question.

What say you?

I’d be interested in your comments.

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Gettysburg Address: Abraham Lincoln’s Monumental Speech

On the afternoon of 19 November 1863, President Abraham Lincoln stood to address a crowd of about 15,000 people gathered for the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He followed the main speaker of the day, famed orator Edward Everett, who had just finished delivering a two-hour address that was well-received by the audience. Then President Lincoln spoke for only two minutes, delivering his ten-sentence “Gettysburg Address” that has gained enduring fame as one of the greatest speeches in American history.

photo of President Abraham Lincoln, 8 November 1863, 11 days before delivering the Gettysburg Address

Photo: President Abraham Lincoln, 8 November 1863, 11 days before delivering the Gettysburg Address. Credit: Alexander Gardner; Wikimedia Commons.

Gettysburg Ceremony of 1863

The ceremony that day was in honor of the dead who had fallen at the Battle of Gettysburg the first three days of July 1863, an incredibly bloody battle during the Civil War that ended the Confederacy’s invasion of the North, highlighted by the ferocious attack on the third day known as Pickett’s Charge. More than 7,500 military men and thousands of horses were killed during the three days’ fighting, and their rotting corpses stank in the hot July sun.

The deceased Civil War soldiers had been hastily buried in shallow graves on the battlefield, but 17 acres were later set aside for a proper cemetery, and the bodies were being transferred—Union dead only—to the new cemetery. (The Confederate dead were left in their battlefield graves until 1870-1873, when they were transferred to cemeteries in the South.)

Enter Last Name

Now, four and a half months after the Gettysburg battle, the cemetery was being dedicated and Lincoln delivered his surprisingly short speech. He had been invited to “set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks” and Lincoln’s remarks were few indeed—yet powerful.

photo of the Lincoln Address Memorial, designed by Louis Henrick, with bust of Abraham Lincoln by Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, erected at the Gettysburg National Cemetery in 1912

Photo: The Lincoln Address Memorial, designed by Louis Henrick, with bust of Abraham Lincoln by Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, erected at the Gettysburg National Cemetery in 1912. Credit: CJC47; Wikimedia Commons.

Lincoln’s Famous Speech

It is impossible to know exactly what Lincoln said that day. There are five known manuscripts of his speech, but they have differences. Additionally, several newspapers reported the president’s speech, but these accounts all have variations as well. We will also never know how the crowd reacted to his speech. Accounts vary from no applause at all, to only polite applause, to long sustained applause.

Here is how the Albany Journal reported the dedication ceremony and Lincoln’s speech. Its account was based on the reporting of a New York Times reporter; that Republican-leaning paper was careful to note that Lincoln’s short speech was interrupted with applause five times, and claimed it was met with “long, continued applause” at its conclusion. It is interesting to note that not a word of the featured speaker Everett’s speech is quoted, but President Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is quoted in its entirety.

article about President Abraham Lincoln delivering the Gettysburg Address, Albany Evening Journal newspaper article 20 November 1863

Albany Evening Journal (Albany, New York), 20 November 1863, page 2

The 1800s news article reported:

“Gettysburg, Nov. 19

“The ceremonies attending the dedication of the National Cemetery commenced this morning by a grand military and civic display, under command of Maj. Gen. Couch. The line of march was taken up at 10 o’clock, and the procession marched through the principal streets to the cemetery, where military formed in line and saluted the President. At a quarter-past eleven the head of the procession arrived at the main stand. The President and members of the Cabinet, together with the chief military and civic dignitaries, took positions on the stand. The President seated himself between Mr. Seward and Mr. Everett, after a reception marked with the respect and perfect silence due to the solemnity of the occasion, every man in the immense gathering uncovering on his appearance.

“The military then formed in line, extending around the stand, the area between the stand and military being occupied by civilians, comprising about fifteen thousand people, and including men, women, and children. The attendance of ladies was quite large. The military escort comprised one squadron of cavalry, two batteries of artillery, and a regiment of infantry, which constitutes the regular funeral escort of honor for the highest officer in the service.

“After the performance of a funeral dirge by Birgfield by the band, an eloquent prayer was delivered by Rev. Mr. Stockton.

“Mr. Everett then commenced the delivery of his oration, which was listened to with marked attention throughout.

“Although a heavy fog clouded the heavens in the morning during the procession, the sun broke out in all its brilliancy during the Rev. Mr. Stockton’s prayer, and shone upon the magnificent spectacle. The assemblage was of great magnitude, and was gathered within a circle of great extent around the stand, which was located on the highest point of ground on which the battle was fought. A long line of military surrounded the position taken by the immense multitude of people.

“The marshal took up a position on the left of the stand. Numerous flags and banners, suitably draped, were exhibited on the stand and among the audience. The entire scene was one of grandeur due to the importance of the occasion. So quiet were the people that every word uttered by the orator of the day must have been heard by them all, notwithstanding the immensity of the concourse.

“Dedicatory Speech of the President.

“The President then delivered the following dedicatory speech:

“‘Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. (Applause.) Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We are met to dedicate a portion of it as the final resting place of those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.

“‘It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. (Applause.) The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. (Applause.) It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work that they have for us so far, nobly carried on. (Applause.)  It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion, that we here highly resolve that the dead shall not have died in vain (applause); that the nation shall, under God, have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.’ (Long continued applause.)

“Three cheers were here given for the President and the Governors of the States.

“After the delivery of this address, the dirge and the benediction closed the exercises, and the immense assemblage departed at about 4 o’clock.”

Historical newspapers are not only a great way to learn about the lives of your ancestors—they also help you understand the times your ancestors lived in, and the news they talked about and read in their local papers.

Did any of your ancestors fight in the Battle of Gettysburg or meet Abraham Lincoln? Share your family stories with us in the comments.

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Holiday Genealogy Gift Ideas Pt. 2: Old Fashioned Recipe Book

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this blog post, Mary presents the second in a series of genealogy holiday gift ideas: a project to create a recipe book of vintage dishes your ancestors might have prepared.

If you’re looking for a fun gift idea for the holidays, put together an anthology of your ancestors’ holiday recipes. You can find thousands of recipes in old newspapers, such as GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives. Assemble them as gifts or surprise the family by cooking a meal with vintage recipes.

Here are some ideas:

  • Make an old fashioned cookbook
  • Create recipe cards
  • Assemble dry ingredients for soups into clear jars & attach the recipe card with glue or string to the exterior
  • Bake sweets & treats the way Grandma did
  • Put on your apron & cook the meal the old fashioned way (or do it faster with modern conveniences)

To demonstrate how simple it is to find old fashioned recipes in historical newspapers, I’ve assembled a selection from the GenealogyBank archives to get you started—such as this one for strawberry ice cream. Doesn’t this sound delicious!

1897 Strawberry Ice Cream

Ingredients:

  • 1 pint of milk
  • 4 egg yolks
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 1 pint double cream
  • 1 quart perfectly ripe strawberries
  • 1 cup sugar
  • liquid carmine for coloring (vegetable dye or extracts)
strawberry ice cream recipe, New York Tribune newspaper article 24 June 1897

New York Tribune (New York, New York), 24 June 1897, page 5

1918 Health Bread

In 19th century America, homemakers made their own bread. Here is an old health bread recipe invented by a woman from Aberdeen, South Dakota.

Ingredients:

  • 3 pints potato water
  • 1 cup mashed potatoes
  • 1 cake yeast foam
  • ½ cup sugar
  • 1 tablespoon salt
  • 1 sifter dark rye flour
  • 2 cups white flour
  • 1 cup corn meal
  • 1 tablespoon beef fat or Crisco
health bread recipe, Aberdeen Daily News newspaper article 21 January 1918

Aberdeen Daily News (Aberdeen, South Dakota), 21 January 1918, page 3

1898 German Christmas Cookies

Ingredients:

  • 7 ½ ounces butter plus a small amount to grease a pan
  • 10 ounces powdered sugar
  • 4 eggs
  • ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • 14 ounces sifted flour
  • icing
German Christmas cookies recipe, Daily Illinois State Journal newspaper article 21 December 1898

Daily Illinois State Journal (Springfield, Illinois), 21 December 1898, page 7

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1850 Corn Bread

Ingredients:

  • 2 ½ pints sifted meal
  • 1 quart buttermilk
  • 1 teacup sugar
  • ½ cup sour cream
  • 3 eggs
  • 1 tablespoon saleratus (baking powder)
corn bread recipe, Jackson Citizen newspaper article 15 May 1850

Jackson Citizen (Jackson, Michigan), 15 May 1850, page 1

The following 1878 recipes for lemon and sweet potato pies came from the same publication. The recipe article also included tantalizing cream cake, snow ball cake and early frosting recipes.

1878 Lemon Pie (1st variation)

Ingredients:

  • 1 lemon
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 1 tablespoon cornstarch
  • ½ cup boiling water
  • 1 egg
  • butter the size of a walnut
  • 1 crust

1878 Lemon Pie (2nd variation)

Ingredients:

  • 1 tablespoon corn starch
  • 1 cup water
  • 1 cup sugar
  • piece of butter the size of a small egg
  • 1 egg
  • juice of 1 lemon
  • 1 crust
lemon pie recipe, Daily Inter Ocean newspaper article 27 July 1878

Daily Inter Ocean (Chicago, Illinois), 27 July 1878, page 11

1878 Sweet Potato Pie

Ingredients:

  • 2 eggs
  • 2 cups milk
  • 1 cup finely-mashed sweet potatoes
  • sugar to taste
  • 1 crust (no top)
sweet potato pie recipe, Daily Inter Ocean newspaper article 27 July 1878

Daily Inter Ocean (Chicago, Illinois), 27 July 1878, page 11

1855 Rabbit, Hare or Venison Soup

Soup is best simmered over a hot stove. Start the soup six hours prior to serving.

Ingredients:

  • 3 large, young and tender rabbits or 4 small ones
  • 6 mild onions
  • half a grated nutmeg
  • fresh butter or cold roast veal gravy
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon whole pepper (pepper corn)
  • 1 teaspoon sweet marjoram leaves
  • 4 or 5 blades mace
  • 3 large sliced carrots
  • 4 quarts boiling water
  • 6 grated hard boiled egg yolks
  • diced bread or buttered toast

Additional ingredients required for hare or venison soup:

  • 2 glasses Sherry or Madeira wine
  • 1 sliced lemon
rabbit soup recipe, California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences newspaper article 28 June 1855

California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences (Sacramento, California), 28 June 1855, page 205

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1874 Beef, Chicken, Oyster or Veal Soup

This recipe was “extracted from the manuscript recipe book of an old and famous Virginia housekeeper,” who, unfortunately, was not named in the newspaper article.

Ingredients:

  • meat of one’s choosing, such as a large shank bone of beef
  • a lump of butter
  • a selection of herbs & vegetables of one’s choosing
  • water
  • salt & other condiments
  • flour
soup recipe, Alexandria Gazette newspaper article 24 March 1874

Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, Virginia), 24 March 1874, page 2

1878 Vinegar

If you’ve ever wondered how to make vinegar, try this recipe.

Ingredients:

  • potatoes
  • 1 pound sugar
  • 2 ½ gallons water
  • hop yeast or whiskey
vinegar recipe, Daily Inter Ocean newspaper article 27 July 1878

Daily Inter Ocean (Chicago, Illinois), 27 July 1878, page 11

Now, before we end on a “sour” note from the vinegar recipe, you really must know that America’s favorite Snickerdoodles are not a modern-day invention.

1932 Snickerdoodle

Where do snickerdoodles come from?

A “Culinary Jingles” column from the Lexington Herald of 27 May 1932 reminds us that snickerdoodle is an adaptation of a foreign recipe, much like a quick coffee cake. The author of this newspaper article reported the origin was Dutch, but my Dutch contacts at Facebook tell me this is wrong. It is not a Dutch recipe, but more likely of German or Pennsylvania Dutch origin.

Oh darn! Guess you can’t always believe what you read. I was imagining the ancestors sitting by an Amsterdam canal exchanging holiday greetings while munching on their favorite snickerdoodles! (Note to self: change that mental image to Germans along the Rhine!)

Ingredients:

  • 1 ½ tablespoons butter
  • 2/3 cup granulated sugar
  • 1 egg
  • ½ cup milk
  • 1 ½ cups self-rising flour
  • 1 ½ tablespoons cinnamon mixed with 1 ½ tablespoons granulated sugar
snickerdoodle recipe, Lexington Herald newspaper article 27 May 1932

Lexington Herald (Lexington, Kentucky), 27 May 1932, page 12

Happy Holidays to one and all, eat well and good luck with your holiday gift projects!

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Oklahoma Archives: 55 Newspapers for Genealogy Research

Yesterday was the 107th anniversary of Oklahoma’s statehood: on 16 November 1907 the Union admitted its 46th state when Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory combined to form the new state of Oklahoma. Residents throughout the state celebrated with wild jubilation and a “red letter” campaign.

As explained in an article published by the Hobart Daily Republican (Hobart, Oklahoma) on 16 November 1907:

The commercial bodies and immigration organizations of the state have assisted in making this a “red letter day” in fact as well as in name by printing thousands of red letters announcing the resources and opportunities of the new commonwealth. These have been distributed all over the state and are being mailed by Oklahomans today to their relatives and friends in other states.

photo of the Ouachita Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma

Photo: Ouachita Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma. Credit: Okiefromokla; Wikipedia.

Also, did you know that the name of the state originated from a Muskogean Indian word? “Oklahoma” comes from the Choctaw words “oklah homma,” which means “red people.” Many Indian tribes including Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Seminole reside in Oklahoma today because Oklahoma was designated by the U.S. government as “Indian territory” in the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

If you are researching your ancestry from Oklahoma, you will want to use GenealogyBank’s online Oklahoma newspaper archives: 55 titles to help you search your family history in the “Sooner State,” providing coverage from 1871 to Today. There are more than 2.8 million newspaper articles and records in our online OK archives! Oklahoma is particularly rich in Native American newspapers given the state’s history, which resulted in one of our nation’s largest populations of American Indian people.

Dig deep into the online archives and search for obituaries and other news articles about your ancestors in these recent and historical OK newspapers online. Our Oklahoma newspapers are divided into two collections: Historical Newspapers (complete paper) and Recent Obituaries (obituaries only).

Search Oklahoma Newspaper Archives (1871 – 1923)

Search Oklahoma Recent Obituaries (1982 – Current)

Here is our complete list of online Oklahoma newspapers in the archives. Each newspaper title in this list is an active link that will take you directly to that paper’s search page, where you can begin searching for your ancestors by surnames, dates, keywords and more. The OK newspaper titles are listed alphabetically by city.

City Title Date Range Collection
Ada Ada Evening News 10/29/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Altus Altus Times 1/14/2008 – Current Recent Obituaries
Alva Alva Review-Courier 9/5/2000 – Current Recent Obituaries
Antlers Antlers American 10/14/2010 – Current Recent Obituaries
Ardmore Daily Ardmoreite 12/1/2004 – Current Recent Obituaries
Bartlesville Bartlesville Examiner-Enterprise 10/18/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Bethany Bethany Tribune 12/7/2012 – Current Recent Obituaries
Chickasha Express Star 3/31/2006 – Current Recent Obituaries
Claremore Claremore Daily Progress 7/3/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Duncan Duncan Banner 4/26/2006 – Current Recent Obituaries
Durant Durant Daily Democrat 5/29/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Edmond Edmond Sun 10/24/2005 – Current Recent Obituaries
Enid Enid News and Eagle 8/1/2008 – Current Recent Obituaries
Fairland American 10/4/2012 – Current Recent Obituaries
Frederick Frederick Press-Leader 12/3/2006 – Current Recent Obituaries
Grove Grove Sun 2/25/2008 – Current Recent Obituaries
Guymon Guymon Daily Herald 5/30/2008 – Current Recent Obituaries
Hobart Hobart Daily Republican 1/4/1907 – 6/30/1920 Newspaper Archives
Hobart Hobart Weekly Chief 7/2/1908 – 12/31/1908 Newspaper Archives
Hobart Hobart Democrat 1/10/1908 – 7/1/1909 Newspaper Archives
Langston Langston City Herald 11/14/1891 – 3/30/1893 Newspaper Archives
Lawton Lawton Constitution 10/1/2006 – Current Recent Obituaries
McAlester McAlester News-Capital & Democrat 12/4/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Miami Miami District Daily News 8/19/1917 – 1/31/1923 Newspaper Archives
Miami Miami Record-Herald 7/28/1899 – 10/9/1903 Newspaper Archives
Miami Miami Weekly Herald 9/23/1899 – 11/20/1903 Newspaper Archives
Miami Miami News-Record 12/3/1999 – Current Recent Obituaries
Midwest City Midwest City Sun 7/10/2008 – Current Recent Obituaries
Moore American 1/3/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Muskogee Muskogee Daily Phoenix and Times-Democrat 2/18/2004 – Current Recent Obituaries
Norman Norman Transcript 9/19/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Nowata Nowata Star 10/3/2012 – Current Recent Obituaries
Oklahoma City Daily Oklahoman 1/25/1898 – 12/31/1913 Newspaper Archives
Oklahoma City Guide 10/6/1898 – 8/1/1903 Newspaper Archives
Oklahoma City Oklahoman 11/1/1982 – Current Recent Obituaries
Oklahoma City Oklahoman, The: Web Edition Articles 12/14/2013 – Current Recent Obituaries
Pauls Valley Pauls Valley Daily Democrat 9/8/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Pawhuska Pawhuska Journal-Capital 10/17/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Perry Perry Republican 1/1/1914 – 12/28/1922 Newspaper Archives
Perry Noble County Sentinel 10/3/1901 – 9/1/1904 Newspaper Archives
Perry Perry Daily Journal 12/4/2012 – Current Recent Obituaries
Poteau Poteau Daily News & Sun 7/29/2009 – Current Recent Obituaries
Pryor Daily Times 12/26/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Shawnee Shawnee News-Star 10/2/2009 – Current Recent Obituaries
Stillwater Stillwater News Press 9/11/2007 – Current Recent Obituaries
Tahlequah Cherokee Advocate 4/29/1871 – 7/3/1897 Newspaper Archives
Tahlequah Tahlequah Daily Press 12/29/2005 – Current Recent Obituaries
Tulsa Tulsa World 1/1/1911 – 12/31/1922 Newspaper Archives
Tulsa Tulsa World 1/1/1989 – Current Recent Obituaries
Tulsa Native American Times 10/27/2009 – Current Recent Obituaries
Tuttle Tuttle Times 3/29/2006 – 1/27/2010 Recent Obituaries
Vinita Vinita Daily Journal 11/10/2012 – Current Recent Obituaries
Waurika Waurika News Democrat 2/11/2010 – Current Recent Obituaries
Weatherford Weatherford Daily News 11/27/2012 – Current Recent Obituaries
Woodward Woodward News 4/26/2010 – Current Recent Obituaries

You can either print or create a PDF version of this Blog post by simply clicking on the green “Print/PDF” button below. The PDF version makes it easy to save this post onto your desktop or portable device for quick reference—all the Oklahoma newspaper links will be live.

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Man Overboard! Mayflower Pilgrim John Howland’s Story

Did you know that Mayflower Pilgrim John Howland almost didn’t make it to America?

article about Pilgrim John Howland being swept overboard from the Mayflower, Omaha World Herald newspaper article 21 May 1897

Omaha World Herald (Omaha, Nebraska), 21 May 1897, page 10

This old newspaper article reports his narrow escape:

…with a roll of ye ship [John Howland was] throwne into the sea, but it pleased God that he caught hould of the topsail halliards, which hunge overboard and ran out of length; yet he held his hould (though he was sundry fathoms under water) till he was held up by the same rope to the brim of the water, and then with a boat hooke and other means got into the ship again and his life saved.

There is a painting by Mike Haywood – “Pilgrim Overboard” – that commemorates this event.

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It is a good thing that John Howland was rescued from the sea—not only for his sake—but because he has more living descendants today than any other Mayflower passenger.

Wow – I didn’t know about his near-drowning.

There are so many of our old family stories that simply have not been passed down to us today. Rediscover your family’s stories in GenealogyBank’s more than three centuries of historical newspaper archives.

Related Mayflower Ancestry Articles:

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Scary Mayflower Fact: Storm Cracked Ship’s Main Beam

I didn’t realize that the Mayflower had such a difficult time when the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic in 1620.

article about the Mayflower, Boston Herald newspaper article 25 November 1970

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 25 November 1970, page 26

A long voyage—yes, I knew that.
The ship got off course—yes, I knew that too.

But multiple severe storms, including one that cracked and buckled the Mayflower’s main beam? No, I didn’t remember that part of the story.

Luckily the Pilgrims had brought along nails, screws and other items for building homes in the New World, and were able to use a “great iron scrue” to “force the beam back into place.”

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Think of the main beam of a house. The main beam at the midpoint of a ship—“amidships” —is the key beam holding the ship together. This was serious ship damage.

That is a great true story.

You want to know about these ancestral stories—find them, save them and pass them down in the family. You’ll find them in the old, deep GenealogyBank Historical Newspaper Archives.

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1918 Surrender of Germany Ends WWI & Veterans Rejoice

No one called it World War I at the time—for it did not seem possible there could ever be a second. Instead, they called it the “Great War” or the “War to End All Wars.” In a little over four years of combat, more than 70 million soldiers were mobilized around the world and over 9 million were killed. Finally, German officials signed an armistice in November 1918, and on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, the ceasefire began and hostilities ended.

photo of American soldiers of the U.S. 64th Regiment, 7th Infantry Division, celebrating the news of the Armistice, 11 November 1918

Photo: American soldiers of the U.S. 64th Regiment, 7th Infantry Division, celebrating the news of the Armistice, 11 November 1918. Source: U.S. National Archive; Wikimedia Commons.

Nearly a century has now passed since the end of WWI, and the modern world may be losing sight of how traumatized the world was in 1918. But the press certainly knew it then, as the headline from the following newspaper article flatly declares: “Curtain Rolls Down on Most Stupendous Tragedy of History.”

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WWI irrevocably changed the world. It ushered in the era of modern warfare, with such innovations as tanks, chemical weapons and airplanes. It destroyed two powerful empires, the Austro-Hungarian and the Ottoman, and the Russian Empire was torn down by revolutionary forces that eventually led to the Soviet Union. Germany was shackled, causing resentment that helped fuel the rise of Hitler and the Nazis. After the conflict ended the world’s map was redrawn, especially in Central Europe and the Middle East. Despite the conviction of many that the “War to End All Wars” had taught humanity a lasting if distressing lesson (and the League of Nations was formed to implement this lesson), WWII began just 21 years later.

The signing of the armistice ending WWI was, of course, huge news all around the world, as shown by this front page newspaper article.

article about the armistice ending World War I, Bellingham Herald newspaper article 11 November 1918

Bellingham Herald (Bellingham, Washington), 11 November 1918, page 1

Do you have any family stories about your ancestors who fought in, or were affected by, World War I? Tell us about them in the comments section.

Related WWI Articles:

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Henry Ford & the Model T: History That Changed the World

Introduction: Duncan Kuehn is a professional genealogist with over eight years of client experience. She has worked on several well-known projects, such as “Who Do You Think You Are?” and researching President Barack Obama’s ancestry. In this blog post, Duncan searches old newspapers to learn about Henry Ford and his assembly line-produced Model T that changed the world.

The Model T Ford, introduced on 1 October 1908, is one of the most influential cars of all time. Henry Ford perfected the assembly line system to create an affordable car for the emerging middle class. In fact, some argue that the Model T created the middle class.

photo of a Model T Ford, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1910

Photo: Model T Ford, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1910. Source: Harry Shipler; Wikimedia Commons.

Assembly Lines Enable Mass Production

The Ford Motor Company’s streamlined assembly line was able to produce the Model T at a record pace and for a reasonable price. Initially the car cost $850, changing the automobile from a luxury item only the rich could afford to a staple of many Americans’ lives.

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Newspaper Ads Fuel Demand

Along with innovations in the factory, Henry Ford was a genius at promotion, using newspapers all across the country to advertise his Model T Ford. As this 1909 newspaper ad proclaims:

If you are looking for a car that combines the desirable qualities of power, speed, quiet running, ease of riding, simplicity of operation and low cost of maintenance, you will find the Model ‘T’ Ford in a class by itself.

ad for a Ford Model T car, Baltimore American newspaper advertisement 21 February 1909

Baltimore American (Baltimore, Maryland), 21 February 1909, page 37

The new car was so popular that the Ford Motor Company had to work hard to keep up with demand for the Model T.

ad for Ford Model T cars, Colorado Springs Gazette newspaper advertisement 30 October 1908

Colorado Springs Gazette (Colorado Springs, Colorado), 30 October 1908, page 2

Drive Testing & Road Trips

Henry Ford promoted his newest model by taking it on a road trip to show that the lighter Model T could perform just as well as heavier cars. Personally, I was fascinated by the description of the roads in this article, described as being buried by six inches of dust prior to a rain storm that created a muddy mess.

New Car (Ford Model T) a Success, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 18 October 1908

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 18 October 1908, page 10

The widespread availability of cars made the family trip a national pastime. Road trips became opportunities for families to reconnect and spend time together. Even shorter outings to local sites of interest became more popular since it could all be done in a day. People were more likely to move further from where they grew up since it became more convenient to go home for a visit. Shipping also became possible and local specialties could be sold to a wider audience.

As mentioned before, the roads of the time were inadequate by today’s standards. The roughness of the roads made travel difficult and uncomfortable. In buying a car, purchasers were looking for something sturdy enough to handle a constant beating from the road—and also something that wouldn’t transfer that beating to them. To test the Model T’s abilities they took it on long-distance trips.

article about the Ford Model T car, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 5 September 1909

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 5 September 1909, page 11

They performed grueling driving tests.

article about the Ford Model T car, Rockford Republic newspaper article 4 March 1909

Rockford Republic (Rockford, Illinois), 4 March 1909, page 6

They tried racing in the Model T.

(Note: this newspaper photo of a stripped-down Model T with no roll bars, windshield, airbags, seatbelts, or even much of a passenger cabin to speak of makes every medic cringe, despite the car’s top speed of just 45 miles per hour.)

article about the Ford Model T car, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 14 August 1910

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 14 August 1910, page 7

Despite all the abuse they put the car through, the Model T remained sturdy enough to stay at the top of the sales charts—although the commentator in the following news article is clearly not a Model T fan.

article criticizing Ford cars, Perry Republican newspaper article 21 October 1915

Perry Republican (Perry, Oklahoma), 21 October 1915, page 4

Car Options & Accessories

The Model T had a crank start. It was open to the elements, although it had a roll-top of sorts. Ford sold the car in the most basic state, but then offered all sorts of accessories—including a stethoscope-type attachment to listen to the engine and check for damage, a grill to turn the engine into a barbeque of sorts, and so on. This was a brilliant move by Ford to cash in on his customers’ aftermarket needs, and allowed owners to customize their car to their requirements and desires.

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Keeping Up with the Joneses

Locally, it was a big deal when someone purchased a Model T or took a trip in one. Numerous articles appear talking about Mr. So-and-So’s new purchase or car trip that specifically mention the Model T by name.

article about William Sparks touring in his Ford Model T car, Evening Star newspaper article 29 August 1909

Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), 29 August 1909, page 16

Here’s another example, listing all the people who have recently bought Fords in the Washington, D.C., area.

(Note: this list has a seemingly high number of doctors purchasing the car. It makes sense when you remember that this was during the time of the traveling doctor. A car would be a wonderful way for him or her to get to the patient quicker.)

article listing local people who bought Ford Model T cars, Evening Star newspaper article 10 October 1909

Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), 10 October 1909, page 22

The Model T’s design changed over time, but remained the most popular car of its era.

New Style Body on Ford Model T, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 20 October 1912

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 20 October 1912, page 21

Lasting Impact on Modern Life

Car collectors and enthusiasts today are still excited about the Model T. Historians write about its impact on our modern life. If you ever wonder why it was such a big deal, just imagine your life without your car. Modern life depends on it. And the assembly line system which produced the Model T is what makes it possible for most of us to own a car today.

article about car enthusiasts and their Ford Model T automobiles, Register Star newspaper article 22 September 2007

Register Star (Rockford, Illinois), 22 September 2007, page 12

Do you have any photos of your ancestors driving around in their Model T?

photo of a family in Indiana with their Ford Model T car

Photo: ancestors in Indiana on their farm with their Model T. Source: from the personal photo collection of Amanda Miller.

Share your Model T family pictures and stories in the comments section.

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