Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor Propels U.S. into WWII

This Sunday marks the 73rd anniversary of the Japanese surprise attack against the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on 7 December 1941 that triggered the U.S. entry into World War II.

photo of the USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

Photo: the USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Credit: Victor-ny; Wikimedia Commons.

Speaking to a solemn joint session of Congress on 8 December 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made this famous declaration:

Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

U.S. Declares War on Japan, Bellingham Herald newspaper article 8 December 1941

Bellingham Herald (Bellingham, Washington), 8 December 1941, page 1

Although the Japanese attack was a stunning example of military planning and execution, and resulted in a smashing victory, it was indeed smeared with infamy—for the two nations were not at war, and the attack was completely unprovoked and came with absolutely no warning. In fact, one hour after the attack commenced two Japanese officials met with the U.S. secretary of state in Washington, D.C., to submit a formal reply to an overture made to the Japanese government on November 26 to maintain peace.

article about men enlisting for WWII, Boston Traveler newspaper article 8 December 1941

Boston Traveler (Boston, Massachusetts), 8 December 1941, page 1

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The attack on Pearl Harbor dealt a severe blow to the U.S. Pacific Fleet. All eight battleships were damaged and four sunk, 10 other ships were damaged or sunk, over 300 aircraft damaged or destroyed, and more than 2,400 men killed. The Japanese military only lost 29 aircraft, 5 midget submarines, and 64 men killed. It appeared the Japanese had triumphantly achieved their objective of crippling the U.S. fleet so that it could not oppose their expansion in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

photos of the U.S. reaction to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 8 December 1941

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 8 December 1941, page 12

The Japanese victory was not total, however. Perhaps most importantly, the U.S. Pacific Fleet’s three aircraft carriers were not in Pearl Harbor at the time of the attack and escaped harm. Naval warfare in WWII established that the era of the battleship was over; the aircraft carrier ruled supreme, and in that sense the U.S. fleet was very lucky. Also, the Japanese concentrated on attacking warships and aircraft and ignored the support facilities on the shores of Pearl Harbor, essentially leaving that vital military facility intact to help the U.S. Pacific Fleet recover and prepare to carry the war to the Japanese.

Idahoans on Duty with Pacific Fleet, Idaho Statesman newspaper article 8 December 1941

Idaho Statesman (Boise, Idaho), 8 December 1941, page 2

The day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, 8 December 1941, the U.S. declared war on Japan. Nazi Germany and Italy, Japan’s allies, then declared war on the U.S. America was now fully engaged in WWII, a contest that would test the strength and resolve of the entire nation for 3½ years before victory was finally won—after the loss of more than 400,000 U.S. military personnel.

obituary for Hal Perry, killed during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Advocate newspaper article 11 December 1941

Advocate (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), 11 December 1941, page 1

Historical newspapers (http://www.genealogybank.com/gbnk/newspapers/) are not only a great way to learn about the lives of your ancestors—they also help you understand American history and the times your ancestors lived in, and the news they talked about and read in their local papers. Were you or any of your family stationed at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941? Please share your stories with us in the comments.

Related Articles about WWII and Pearl Harbor:

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69th Anniversary: President Franklin D. Roosevelt Died in Office

Tomorrow marks the 69th anniversary of the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt; on the afternoon of 12 April 1945 the nation’s 32nd president died of a cerebral hemorrhage. His life ended just as the great Allied victory in World War II that he had worked so hard for was in sight. In his remarkable and unprecedented four terms and 12 years in the White House, Roosevelt steered the United States through two of the greatest traumas in its history: the Great Depression and World War II.

By consolidating the power of the presidency and inserting the government into many aspects of the country’s civic and economic affairs, Roosevelt was both beloved and hated. Since the 1951 ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment limits U.S. presidents to only two terms, it is safe to say we will never see another presidency like his. Historians consistently rank Roosevelt as one of America’s greatest presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.

The Day FDR Died

Although confined to a wheelchair ever since paralysis struck him in 1921, Roosevelt was a hearty, energetic man. The enormous strain of leading the nation during World War II took its toll on him, however, and his health seriously deteriorated in 1945. Despite this, his sudden death was unexpected. He died in the “Little White House” in Warm Springs, Georgia, where he had gone for the gentle weather and therapeutic waters for a respite. He was sitting for a portrait when he complained of a “terrible headache,” fainted, and never regained consciousness. He was 63.

News of Roosevelt’s Death Hits the Headlines

Historical newspapers are a great resource for exploring your ancestors’ lives—and to get a glimpse into the times they lived in. Here is a collection of front-page headlines to show how newspapers broke the tragic news of Roosevelt’s death to America. (Note: all of the newspaper articles used to illustrate this Blog post come from GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives.)

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Plain Dealer newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), 13 April 1945, page 1

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front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Boston Herald newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dallas Morning News newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Greensboro Daily News newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Greensboro Daily News (Greensboro, North Carolina), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Augusta Chronicle newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, Georgia), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Daily Illinois State Journal newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Daily Illinois State Journal (Springfield, Illinois), 13 April 1945, page 1

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front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Advocate newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Advocate (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Daily Northwestern newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Daily Northwestern (Evanston, Illinois), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Marietta Journal newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Marietta Journal (Marietta, Georgia), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Oregonian newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Oregonian (Portland, Oregon), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Repository newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Repository (Canton, Ohio), 13 April 1945, page 1

front page news about the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Seattle Daily Times newspaper articles 13 April 1945

Seattle Daily Times (Seattle, Washington), 13 April 1945, page 1

Discover more about FDR’s presidency and family life in GenealogyBank’s archives now: http://www.genealogybank.com/gbnk/?lname=Roosevelt&fname=Franklin+D.

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National Archives Celebrates 75th Anniversary this Friday!

National Archives Celebrates 75th Anniversary on Friday, June 19th.

Susan Logue (Voice of America) distributed this commentary on the 75th Anniversary of the National Archives.

Before the National Archives was founded, many governmental records were kept in poor conditions. On June 19, 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the legislation creating the National Archives. “There was a recognition by historians, by public officials and others that the history of the nation was being lost,” says assistant archivist Michael Kurtz. “Records were kept by the agencies that created them. Fires, floods and other disasters really ate away at the nation’s documented heritage.”

A visitor to the National Archives examines the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the U.S.

Constitution Seventy-five years later, it is home to some of the most treasured documents in the United States. Every day, visitors fill the rotunda of the National Archives to get a glimpse of the documents that are the foundation of the United States government: the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.

But there is much more to the National Archives than just the so-called Charters of Freedom. More than 9 billion records preserved.

Since 1934 it has been responsible for all official governmental historical records: judicial, legislative and executive. Of course, not every government document is saved. Only one to three percent are deemed valuable enough to permanently archive. But, as Kurtz explains, that still adds up to more than nine billion records. While the paper records are vast, there are records in other formats as well including video, film, and digital.

“You have wikis and blogs, digital e-mail, all capturing government business,” says Kurtz. He notes they present new challenges to the Archives. “Preserving them is not like having temperature- and humidity-control vaults for paper records, which will ensure the paper records last for hundreds of years. Digital media is much more fragile.”

On the other hand, Kurtz says, the digital age has presented some opportunities for the National Archives, which can provide access to holdings to people who will never be able to come to the National Archives in person.

The National Archives is celebrating its 75th anniversary with lectures and panel discussions, screenings of films, and an exhibit called “Big!,” featuring some of its more unusual holdings. “The original premise was to showcase some unique items that normally don’t get displayed because of their size,” says exhibits specialist Jennifer Johnson.

Those items include a Civil War-era battlefield map of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, that measures four meters square and a bathtub modeled after the one made for President William Howard Taft, the largest U.S. president. He weighed about 145 kilos (320 pounds). “There were a series of items that were custom made for him, including his bed,” says Johnson. “We have a telegram where it is asking for a bathtub, listing the dimensions and describing it as ‘pond-like.’”
When the exhibition, Big!, closes next January, Shaq’s shoe will go to the George W. Bush presidential library. Presidential libraries are also part of the National Archives. There is also a shoe that belonged to basketball star Shaquille O’Neal, which was given to President George W. Bush, and a casting of dinosaur footprints.

Johnson says that was presented to Richard Nixon by two boys who discovered the fossilized prints in New Jersey. “When they discovered these footprints they petitioned Nixon to preserve that area of land so they could study it, and he did. So they gave him a casting of the footprints.” Today, she notes, one of those boys is one of the leading paleontologists in the U.S. There are also more conventional records in the exhibit, illustrating big events and big ideas in American history, like the lunar landing and D-Day, the Normandy invasion that led to the Allied victory in World War Two.

Exhibits like “Big!” give visitors a glimpse of the vast holdings of the National Archives, but the stars of the collection remain the Charters of Freedom.
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