Victorian Women Hike to the Summit of Pikes Peak!

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena finds old newspaper articles and reads about Victorian women who bravely climbed or rode to the top of Pikes Peak in Colorado—some wearing corsets!

Climbing Pikes Peak in Colorado was quite the accomplishment for our nineteenth century ancestors. In 1806 Zebulon Pike declared that he thought the mountain was impossible to climb. At 14,115 feet it is and was no walk in the park. Temperatures can drop 30 to 40 degrees at the higher elevations, a fact that early pioneer hikers were in some cases ill-prepared for.

photo of Pikes Peak, rising above present-day Colorado Springs, Colorado

Photo: Pikes Peak, rising above present-day Colorado Springs, Colorado. Credit: Huttarl; Wikimedia Commons.

Fourteen years after Zebulon Pike’s prophecy, a young man named Edwin James proved that it could be climbed. And so the rest, as they say, is history.

But maybe it’s not a history that’s been completely told.

Imagine hiking the Peak in a long heavy dress and corset! If men thought the hike was difficult in the nineteenth century, it could have only been compounded by what women were expected to wear during this time period. Nonetheless, women did.

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First Woman on Pike’s Peak

Fifty-two years after Zebulon Pike proclaimed no one could ascend the Peak, a woman did just that: Julia Archibald Holmes, a suffragette and abolitionist, climbed to the top of the peak accompanied by her husband in 1858.

photo of Julia Archibald Holmes, c. 1870

Photo: Julia Archibald Holmes, c. 1870. Credit: Agnes Wright Spring; Wikimedia Commons.

Nearly one hundred years later, her exploit was recounted in this newspaper article.

article about Julia Archibald Holmes, Sacramento Bee newspaper article 10 August 1950

Sacramento Bee (Sacramento, California), 10 August 1950, page 20

In that letter* she wrote her mother from atop Pike’s Peak, Julia said of her historic climb:

Nearly everyone tried to discourage me from attempting it, but I believed that I should succeed; and now here I am, and I feel that I would not have missed this glorious sight for anything at all.

While not as comfortable as today’s sportswear, Julia did wear bloomers and a shorter dress that aided her in hiking more comfortably up to the mountain’s summit.

article about Julia Archibald Holmes, Trenton Evening Times newspaper article 24 August 1961

Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, New Jersey), 24 August 1961, page 19

It’s not exactly spandex, but bloomers were at least an improvement for the intrepid mountain climber!

illustration of “bloomer” dress of the 1850s

Illustration: “bloomer” dress of the 1850s. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

After Julia, women continued to ascend the mountain, some by hiking the trails while others used different modes of transportation.

Pikes Peak Inspires “America the Beautiful”

One of the more famous results of having reached the top of Pikes Peak and marveling at the scenery was the penning of the poem “Pikes Peak” by Katherine Lee Bates; her poem was turned into the patriotic song “America the Beautiful.” As a visiting professor at Colorado College in 1893, Bates had the opportunity to ride up to the Peak. The magnificent view from the top gave her the inspiration to write the poem.

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Woman Journalist Goes to the Top

Not all the women who went to the top of Pikes Peak hiked; some, like Katharine Lee Bates, rode in wagons—or even on the backs of mules. New Orleans newspaper travel writer Catharine Cole (pen name for Martha R. Field) wrote about her journey up Pikes Peak in 1884 on a mule, led by a guide. Her report gives a sense that even with the added convenience of riding up the mountain, a woman still faced challenges with the thin air at high altitude—combined with the difficulty of breathing while wearing a corset!

travel article about Pikes Peak written by Catharine Cole, Times-Picayune newspaper article 6 October 1884

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 6 October 1884, page 2

Suffragettes Hoist Flag

Julia Archibald Holmes wasn’t the only suffragette who climbed the mountain. Like with any endeavor, once there is the pioneer who shows that something can be done, others soon follow. And while women continued to climb Pikes Peak for the adventure and the magnificent view, groups of women also used the mountain as a way to get their message across. In 1909 suffragettes ascended and planted a “Votes for Women” flag at the summit.

"Votes for Women" (flag) Floats from Top of Pike's Peak, Anaconda Standard newspaper article 6 November 1909

Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana), 6 November 1909, page 13

Four Generations of Women from One Family Climb the Peak

This article from a 1905 issue of the Denver Post is a family historian’s dream. It would seem that not just one female member of the family climbed the peak, but four generations of the Knapp family women—including a 4-month-old baby! By achieving this goal they disproved the adage that the Peak was “too high for the very young and the very old.” The youngest in their party, understandably, was the youngest ever to ascend the mountain, and the oldest was 85 years of age. Names, ages, and residences are provided in the article.

Four Generations of One Family (Knapp) Ascent to the Top of Pikes Peak, Denver Post newspaper article 8 October 1905

Denver Post (Denver, Colorado), 8 October 1905, page 47

Pikes Peak Can Be a Dangerous Place

While many have successfully climbed to the summit of Pikes Peak, the ascent is not without risk. As hiking to the summit became popular, more and more individuals and families climbed the mountain and some tragic accidents did occur. In their eagerness to ascend the famous Colorado attraction, some downplayed the potential danger in such a trip. While today we know of difficulties that excess exercise combined with changes in altitude and weather can cause, our ancestors didn’t always consider these factors. One case is that of William and Sallie Skinner, a middle-aged Texas couple who attempted to climb the Peak in August 1911. Ignoring their better judgment, they got to a point where they could no longer go on and eventually froze to death. Ironically, a friend of theirs had sent a letter stating “I hope you don’t freeze to death on Pikes Peak.” This letter was found in Mr. Skinner’s pocket.

Man and Wife Frozen to Death in Snows on Summit of Pikes Peak, Denver Post newspaper article 23 August 1911

Denver Post (Denver, Colorado), 23 August 1911, page 6

We know quite a bit about this one tragic death because a photographer took a photo of the frozen bodies and published postcards. You can learn more about this case by viewing the video produced by the Pikes Peak Library about researching the postcard.

Victorian women accomplished incredible things while wearing heavy dresses and constrictive corsets. Hiking Pikes Peak is just one of many ways they showed that they were up to the challenge.

Did any of your female ancestors accomplish remarkable firsts? Please share your stories with us in the comments.

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*Robertson, Janet (2003). The Magnificent Mountain Women: Adventures in the Colorado Rockies. University of Nebraska Press.

Related Female Ancestry Articles:

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Exploring & Preserving Family History with Christmas Cards

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena searches old newspapers to learn about the history of Christmas cards, illustrating her article with vintage Christmas cards from her own collection.

What’s your favorite part of the holiday season? The decorations? The food? Time with family? I must confess that my favorite part is giving and receiving Christmas cards. I know that sounds odd but I really enjoy Christmas cards. I love simple ones made at home, those bought from the store, and even the lengthy family letters full of boasting and news. The ones that include photos are always a favorite because you can see how families have changed over the years.

a vintage Christmas card

Who Invented the Christmas Card?

The first Christmas card was designed by J. C. Horsley in 1843 England at the request of his friend Henry Cole, who wanted an easy way to send out greetings to his family and friends.* A card from that first set just sold at auction for nearly $7,000. Whether you currently send a photo card, a handmade card, a custom-designed card, or one you picked up at a discount retailer, Christmas cards have long been a way to keep in touch with family and friends during the holiday season. In some cases they have also been something to collect; one of the most famous collections was assembled by Queen Mary and is now housed at the British Museum.

a vintage Christmas card

Christmas Card History in Newspapers

You can learn about the history of Christmas cards by searching through old newspapers, such as GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives. Consider this newspaper article instructing readers to order their Christmas cards in November. While we are accustomed to holiday cards with either religious or seasonal designs (such as snowmen or Santa Claus), this was not always the case with Christmas cards. This article gives ideas for card designs including a “sketch made of an attractive nook in your house or garden.” The article’s author says that Christmas cards will be more popular in that year (1917) than ever before because of WWI: “…for many of us will wish to send this slight remembrance to the men who have gone to France or to the training camps, and many of us will wish to remember the families of the same men to at least this extent.”

Order Your Christmas Cards, Trenton Evening Times newspaper article 8 November 1917

Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, New Jersey), 8 November 1917, page 9

a vintage Christmas card

Christmas Card Design

Many people have an opinion about Christmas cards. Some people only like the ones depicting religious themes; others prefer ones that include an annual letter or photo. Even the generations prior to us had their preferences. Maybe you feel the same as Betty Bellaire who remarks in her 1919 article that, while she loves Christmas cards of all kinds, she doesn’t like to receive ones where “the sender has not taken the trouble to write a single word of personal greeting.” I too believe in the importance of those added personal greetings and agree with her that Christmas cards are a “mental reunion with that big circle of friends whom one meets, enjoys and then, through forces of inevitable circumstance, loses touch with as one is swept along through the various phases of one’s life.” It would seem that even our ancestors felt the constraints and stresses of time.

A Few Words on Christmas Cards, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 24 December 1919

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 24 December 1919, page 12

a vintage Christmas card

Genealogy Tip: Save Your Family’s Christmas Cards

In January when the Yule time decorations seem to show their age, what do you do with your holiday cards? One thing to consider is to save them to preserve the signatures for future family history. Those signatures and comments may have some meaning for your family as people age and families change. You could also take some of the suggestions in this 1914 newspaper article, such as: making bookmarks, creating wallpaper, or sending them to a charity that reuses them for craft projects. In this article, Booker T. Washington recommends sending the cards to Southern schools, hospitals and homes. A quick search on the Internet may help you to find other modern-day charities that would welcome your cards.

Ways to Use Christmas Cards Suggested, Oregonian newspaper article 11 January 1914

Oregonian (Portland, Oregon), 11 January 1914, page 6

Happy Holidays!

[Editor’s note: the vintage Christmas cards illustrating this article are all from the author’s collection.]

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* Buday, George. The History of the Christmas Card. London: Spring Books. 1965.

Nursery Rhyme Origins Quiz: Meanings & History behind the Rhymes

Introduction: Mary Harrell-Sesniak is a genealogist, author and editor with a strong technology background. In this guest blog post, Mary provides another fun quiz to test your knowledge of the origins of some familiar nursery rhymes—and provides examples from historical newspapers.

What was “Ring-a-Round the Rosie” really all about? Eventually all genealogists hear rumors about the historical origins and meanings behind popular nursery rhymes, such as:

  • “Ring-a-Round the Rosie” describes people dying from the bubonic plague.
  • Mary of “Mary Had a Little Lamb” was a real person.

I decided to research some of the common nursery rhyme claims, and came to the conclusion that you can’t believe everything you read or hear!

It turns out that one of the above rumors about the meanings of the nursery rhymes is true and the other is an unsubstantiated myth. Do you know which claim is correct? To find out how well you know the true origins of nursery rhymes, test your knowledge with my Nursery Rhyme Origins Genealogy Quiz. Select S for “substantiated” and U for “unsubstantiated.”

early nursery rhymes genealogy quiz

Origins of “Baa Baa Black Sheep”

The first known publication of this famous nursery rhyme was in Tommy Thumb’s Pretty Song Book, a sequel to the lost publication Tommy Thumb’s Song Book of 1744.

Baa, baa, black sheep,

Have you any wool?

Yes, sir, yes, sir,

Three bags full;

One for the master,

And one for the dame,

And one for the little boy

Who lives down the lane.

Some report that the song had a connection to a British tax on wool, or sadly even the slave trade. Of the two explanations the tax on wool seems most realistic, since black wool was prized because it eliminated the need to dye the wool before making clothing.

Neither of these explanations about the meaning of the rhyme is substantiated. However, after reading the lyrics carefully, it appears to me that the song describes a common system of sharing the fruits of one’s labor. Although not proved, I believe this is the not-so-hidden meaning behind “Baa Baa Black Sheep.”

A 17th or 18th Century laborer typically paid his master (probably a Lord of a manor) in goods or crops, and if he had a helper, he would also share in the bounty. Logically, the “little boy who lives down the lane” could have been an assistant, or someone who benefited from his charity.

History of “Jack and Jill”

This popular nursery rhyme dates to the 16th Century. There is no evidence as to the origin, but you may be surprised to learn that many early versions refer to Jack and “Gill” instead of Jill, as seen in this 1884 newspaper article.

Old Nursery Rhyme, Wheeling Register newspaper article 24 June 1884

Wheeling Register (Wheeling, West Virginia), 24 June 1884, page 2

Meaning of “Jack Be Nimble”

This is another famous rhyme of unknown origin. However, some think it refers to Black Jack, a 16th Century English pirate, or that it alludes to an old game of jumping over fires in celebration of the Feast Day of St. Catherine on November 25.

"Jack Be Nimble" nursery rhyme, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 8 May 1806

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 8 May 1806, page 6

Origins of “Little Jack Horner”

The true origin of this nursery rhyme is not known. Although widely debated, some suggest that “Little Jack Horner” refers to a 16th Century thief named Jack Horner, who acted as a courier for Richard Whiting, the Abbot of Glastonbury.

One year Whiting decided to send his courier Jack to bring a Christmas pie to King Henry VIII (1491-1547). Hidden inside the pie were twelve property deeds—which Jack discovered, promptly stealing one.

When he returned to the Abbot, Jack reported that King Henry had given him one of the property deeds as a present for delivering the gift. However, he was reportedly later found guilty of the theft and put to death.

I noticed that in this 1802 newspaper article, the spelling of plums was changed to plumbs.

"Little Jack Horner" nursery rhyme, New-York Herald newspaper article 9 October 1802

New-York Herald (New York, New York), 9 October 1802, page 2

History of “Mary Had a Little Lamb”

Mary had a little lamb,

whose fleece was white as snow.

And everywhere that Mary went,

the lamb was sure to go.

 

It followed her to school one day,

which was against the rule.

It made the children laugh and play,

to see a lamb at school.

 

And so the teacher turned it out,

but still it lingered near.

And waited patiently about,

till Mary did appear.

 

“Why does the lamb love Mary so?”

the eager children cry.

“Why, Mary loves the lamb, you know,”

the teacher did reply.

For obvious reasons, I’ve always had an affinity to this song, so I was delighted to learn that Mary was a real person.

Mary Sawyer (later Tyler) caused a commotion when she took her pet lamb to school. That same day, a man named John Roulstone was visiting the school.

John Roulstone knew Mary Josepha (Buell) Hale (1788-1879), the noted editor of Godey’s Lady’s Book, later known as American Ladies’ Magazine, and one of the people we can thank for making Thanksgiving one of our national holidays.

Roulstone apparently related to Mary Hale the amusing incident of little Mary bringing her lamb to school, and the popular poem was written—either collaboratively, or by Hale—in response to Roulstone’s account. The evidence for this can be found in several of Mary (Sawyer) Tyler’s obituaries, such as this 1889 example from a Boston newspaper.

Mary Tyler obituary, Boston Journal newspaper article 11 December 1889

Boston Journal (Boston, Massachusetts), 11 December 1889, page 4

History of the “Mother Goose” Rhymes

If you visit Granary Burial Ground in Boston, Massachusetts, you’ll find the tombstone of a Mother Goose, a photo of which can be found on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mother_Goose_Grave_Boston.jpg.

Her tombstone reads:

HERE LYES YE BODY OF

MARY GOOSE WIFE TO

ISAAC GOOSE, AGED 42

YEARS DECD OCTOBER

YE 19TH, 1690…

However, this Mary Goose was not the originator of the popular series of nursery rhymes by the same name.

That honor goes to Charles Perrault (1628-1703), a noted French author and advisor to Louis XIV. His compiled nursery rhymes were often rewritten, most notably by the Brothers Grimm during the 19th Century. For more information on Perrault, see:

The Real “Old King Cole”

“Old King Cole” was reportedly a king who lived during the 4th Century in Kaircoel, England, with Koel being an early spelling for Cole. One version is that after the Saxons overran Britain, the town was renamed Colchester, as chester was the Saxon word for city.

As the legend goes, King Cole’s musically-gifted daughter Helen married Constantine the Great, and it is rumored that she either inspired or authored this famous song.

"Old King Cole" nursery rhyme, Weekly Herald newspaper article 28 July 1849

Weekly Herald (New York, New York), 28 July 1849, page 236

Another suggestion is that “Old King Cole” referred to Thomas Cole-brook, a 12th Century cloth merchant, but there is no evidence that any of these explanations are correct.

Origins of “Ring-a-Round the Rosie”

One of the most common misconceptions about old nursery rhymes is that this poem describes people dying from the bubonic plague. Others suggest it is about putting flowers in a pocket to cover bad smells, or that this is merely describing a child’s dancing game.

Nobody knows the true origins of this delightful nursery rhyme, but if you examine the terms, you may come to your own conclusion.

"Ring-a-Round the Rosie" nursery rhyme

Were “rosies” roses, and “poseys” bundles of flowers? In America, we sing about ashes, but in Britain, they use the term “a-tishoo.” Sounds more like an allergic response to pollen, but that is purely my own speculation.

Do any of you have ancestral souvenirs of nursery rhymes? Do you have any additional information about the history that inspired these famous nursery rhymes? If so, please share with us on Facebook or in the GenealogyBank blog’s comments section. And if any of you happen to find a copy of Tommy Thumb’s Song Book, please blog about it here before it debuts on Antiques Roadshow!