About Gena Philibert-Ortega

Gena Philibert-Ortega holds a Master’s degree in Interdisciplinary Studies and a Master’s degree in Religion. Presenting on various subjects involving genealogy, women’s studies and social history, Gena has spoken to groups throughout the United States and virtually to audiences worldwide. Gena is the author of hundreds of articles published in genealogy newsletters and magazines including Internet Genealogy, Family Chronicle, GenWeekly, FGS Forum, APG Quarterly and the WorldVitalRecords newsletter. She is the author of the books, Putting the Pieces Together, Cemeteries of the Eastern Sierra (Arcadia Publishing, 2007) and From the Family Kitchen (F + W Media, 2012). Gena is the editor of the Utah Genealogical Association’s journal Crossroads. An instructor for the National Institute for Genealogical Studies, Gena has written courses about social media and Google. She serves as Vice-President for the So. California Chapter of the Association of Professional Genealogists, board member of the Utah Genealogical Association and is a Director for the California State Genealogical Alliance. Her current research interests include social history, community, social history, community cookbooks, signature quilts and researching women’s lives.

Must-Read Genealogy Books

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena discusses eight genealogy books that she has found helpful with her family history research.

What’s on your summer reading list? It doesn’t matter what literature genre you enjoy, make sure to carve out some time to read genealogy and history books. By reading more about genealogy you can learn research methodologies, discover new-to-you resources, and enhance your skills.

At the GenealogyBank Store you can find must-have books for every family history researcher.

Need some genealogy book recommendations? Here are just a few of my favorites reads.

You Can Write Your Family History

One of the reasons I love newspaper research is because of the rich content you can add to the story of your ancestor’s life. But for many researchers, after the thrill of finding information there is the nagging question of what to do with all of it. Sharon DeBartolo Carmack’s book You Can Write Your Family History provides the tools for taking all of that research and turning it into a family history that everyone will want to read. My favorite part of this book is the chapters on researching and using social history to add interest to your family history story. Read those chapters to take your research from something only a genealogist would want to read to something each and every family member will treasure.

photo of the genealogy book "You Can Write Your Family History"

The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy, Third Edition

What is one of the must-have books for every researcher tracing their United States roots? The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy, Third Edition by Val D. Greenwood should be on every family historian’s bookshelf. Looking for a good overview of the fundamentals of research and sources for tracing your family? This is the book. Greenwood explains how to research using “compiled sources, vital and census records, wills and probate records, local and federal land records, civil and criminal court records, church records, military records, immigration records, and cemetery and burial records.” Every researcher should have a basic how-to genealogy book that covers sources and methodologies, and this is one of the best.

photo of the genealogy book "The Researcher's Guide to American Genealogy"

The Family Tree Guidebook to Europe

Is it time for you to jump across the pond with your genealogy research? Instead of just guessing about what to do next, refer to The Family Tree Guidebook to Europe. This book is not only a good place to find maps and resources, it also provides timelines of events that would have impacted your ancestor’s life. Because history and changing geographical boundaries affected your ancestor’s homeland, consult this work before making your research plans.

photo of the genealogy book "The Family Tree Guidebook to Europe"

The Family Tree Sourcebook

A “companion” to Family Tree Guidebook to Europe is The Family Tree Sourcebook, a must for learning more about states you are researching.

photo of the genealogy book "The Family Tree Sourcebook"

Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 1790-1920

One of the first genealogy books I saved up to buy was the Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 1790-1920 by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide. I believe it was co-author William Dollarhide who once made the quip that you could have an ancestor live in five different counties but never move out of their home. This guide shows county outline maps for every 10 years from 1790-1920. Knowing and understanding county boundaries can benefit your census research as well as your finding other types of records (as well as save you valuable research time). To better understand your ancestor’s life, migration, and where to look for records, stock your personal library with maps and map guides. This book will be a great addition to that genealogy collection.

photo of the genealogy book "Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 1790-1920"

Guide to Naturalization Records in the United States

I’m a big fan of author Christina K. Schaefer’s books. Her Guide to Naturalization Records in the United States is a perfect addition to your library, especially as a resource after you’ve searched for your ancestor’s name on passenger lists in GenealogyBank. This book: “state by state, county by county, city by city, the Guide to Naturalization Records identifies all repositories of naturalization records, systematically indicating the types of records held, their dates of coverage, and the location of original and microfilm records. The Guide also pinpoints the whereabouts of federal court records in all National Archives facilities. But perhaps the most unique feature of the Guide to Naturalization Records is that it identifies every single piece of information on naturalizations that is available on microfilm through the National Archives or the Family History Library System…”

photo of the genealogy book "Guide to Naturalization Records in the United States"

The Hidden Half of the Family: A Sourcebook for Women’s Genealogy

Other books by Christina K. Schaefer include The Hidden Half of the Family: A Sourcebook for Women’s Genealogy, another excellent guide that provides state-by-state resources (and early laws that affected women) for researching female ancestors.

photo of the genealogy book "The Hidden Half of the Family: A Sourcebook for Women’s Genealogy"

Turn Your iPad into a Genealogy Powerhouse

Do you have an iPad? If so, I hope you’re using it for your genealogy. It wasn’t too long ago that doing research at a library or archives meant lugging around a rolling suitcase with a laptop, camera, and more. Today, I simply take my iPad and I have everything I need to research, take images of and store documents, refer to my family tree and look up my virtual library. Technology isn’t doing you any good if you don’t know how to use it. Consider checking out genealogy podcaster and international speaker Lisa Louise Cooke’s Turn Your iPad into a Genealogy Powerhouse. Along with tips and suggestions, there is a look at over 65 apps that can help you make the most of your iPad. While this book is geared towards the iPad, Cooke includes comparable apps for Android tablets.

photo of the genealogy book "Turn Your iPad into a Genealogy Powerhouse"

Looking for more genealogy book ideas? I’ve only hit the tip of the iceberg in this article. For more books including country-specific and early American guides, see the GenealogyBank Store.

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Top 7 Websites for Revolutionary War Genealogy

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena discusses—and provides links to—seven top online resources for researching your American Revolutionary War ancestors.

Do you have a Revolutionary War ancestor? Maybe you have always heard that your ancestor was a soldier or a patriot during the American Revolution. Perhaps you have a female ancestor who was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). Do you have copies of your ancestor’s military records but are not sure where to go next with your family history research? It’s time to make a genealogy research plan.

Painting: surrender of British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga on 17 October 1777 to American General Horatio Gates, by John Trumbull

Painting: surrender of British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga on 17 October 1777 to American General Horatio Gates, by John Trumbull. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

When thinking about researching your Revolutionary ancestor, consider what records may be left behind that result from his military service, death, and even his legacy.* Also keep in mind where such records may be held. While it’s easy to assume that the majority of records will be found at the National Archives or a subscription-based website, there are various online repositories with historical Revolutionary-period records useful to your ancestry research.

Ask questions of each record you find and then look for documents that answer those questions. While some of the research you do will involve looking for documents that include his name, there will be general histories about events your ancestor was involved in—which don’t specifically mention him by name—that you will also want to consult to learn more about his day-to-day life in the battlefields and political developments of the time.

Not sure where to start? Begin first with an overall search of newspapers and digitized books.

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1) Newspaper Articles and Historical Books

In my previous article Tracing Your Colonial & Revolutionary Ancestry in Newspapers, I wrote about articles that can be found in GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives for finding your Revolutionary War ancestor. Whether you are just starting your research or have been at it for years, you should begin with newspapers to see what more you can learn. Because GenealogyBank is constantly adding newspapers, searching just once is not enough—keep coming back, to search the new material. A helpful feature of GenealogyBank’s Newspaper Archives search page is that you can narrow your search to an “Added Since” date so that you are not going through the same results you viewed previously.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's Historical Newspaper Archives search page

Obviously, one of the newspaper article-types that you will hope to find is an obituary. An obituary may provide key information including family members’ names, military service, occupation, and the cemetery where he is buried.

One resource researchers might not be as familiar with is GenealogyBank’s Historical Documents & Records collection, which includes the American State Papers. These federal government documents can include mentions of Revolutionary War soldiers—and their widows—as they applied for things like pensions.

Search Tip: As you search the GenealogyBank collections, make sure to keep in mind name variations. Don’t just stop after searching one version of your ancestor’s name. Write out a list of various name combinations that take into account their initials, name abbreviations (Jno, Benj., Wm.), and nicknames—as well as possible misspellings of the first and last name.

2) Online Grave Listings

In addition to newspaper articles and historical books, there are several online resources available for lists of Revolutionary War soldiers’ graves. To read more about these resources, see the article Revolutionary War Cemetery Records on the FamilySearch Wiki.

screenshot of FamilySearch's page for American Revolutionary War records

Source: FamilySearch

3) Daughters of the American Revolution

Want to verify that your ancestor was a Revolutionary War patriot? Maybe you have a copy of a female family member’s DAR application. Looking to become a member of the DAR or the SAR (Sons of the American Revolution)? Even if you aren’t interested in joining these groups, they have a vast collection of resources that can help you with your research. According to DAR member and chapter registrar Sheri Beffort Fenley, there are two resources all non-DAR members should use.

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The first is the Genealogical Research System. According to their website, the Genealogical Research System (GRS) “is a collection of databases that provide access to the many materials amassed by the DAR since its founding in 1890.”

screenshot of the Daughters of the American Revolution's Genealogical Research System website

Source: Daughters of the American Revolution

The second resource Fenley recommends is the DAR Library.

screenshot of the Daughters of the American Revolution's Library website

Source: Daughters of the American Revolution

While you are looking at the DAR homepage, make sure to click on the Resources tab. Here you’ll find the Revolutionary Pension Card Index as well as a great eBook entitled Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots of the Revolutionary War: A Guide to Service, Sources, and Studies.

4) Google Books

I would also recommend using Google Books to look through books and periodicals involving the DAR and their various chapters, as well as other genealogical information from the Revolutionary War. It’s a great place to find lineages and transcriptions.

screenshot of the Google Books website

Source: Google

5) Sons of the American Revolution

The Sons of the American Revolution Genealogical Research Library in Kentucky also may be of use to your research. To learn more about their collection and their SAR Patriot Index, see their website.

screenshot of the Sons of the American Revolution's Research Library website

Source: Sons of the American Revolution

6) National Archives & Records Administration (NARA)

The National Archives holds the records of our federal government, including military records. For the Revolutionary War you can find everything from Compiled Military Service Records to pensions and bounty land records. (Please note that NARA is the caretaker for federal records; they do not have state records such as state militia records. For those records, you need to contact the appropriate state archives.) Click here to see a list of NARA Revolutionary War records. A good tutorial for learning more about obtaining military records from NARA is on their web page: Genealogy Research in Military Records.

screenshot of the National Archives and Records Administration's American Revolutionary War records website

Source: National Archives and Records Administration

7) FamilySearch Resources

There are also several Revolutionary War databases available from the free website FamilySearch, including the searchable United States Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Applications, 1800-1900. Most people automatically think of service records and pensions when they think of military service—but what is often missed are bounty land grants. Military Bounty Land was offered to men in return for their military service. This served as both an enticement and a reward for longer service. Your ancestor may have received much more from his service than just monetary compensation. To learn more about bounty land and how to research it, see Christine Rose’s book Military Bounty Land 1776-1855.

The United States Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 from FamilySearch “contains images of muster rolls, payrolls, strength returns, and other personnel, pay, and supply records of the American Army during the Revolutionary War.” This collection is not searchable; you have to browse it, and you need to know the state your soldier fought for. Make sure to utilize the FamilySearch Family History Research Wiki to learn more about other Revolutionary War documents available from FamilySearch.

screenshot of FamilySearch's Family History Research Wiki website

Source: FamilySearch

Wherever you are in your search for your Revolutionary War ancestor, make sure to have a plan and a list of genealogy resources—and then go through each one. Using a combination of sources including newspapers, digitized books, and military records, you can start to put together the story of your Revolutionary War ancestor soldier’s life.

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* Because the majority of soldiers in the Revolutionary War were men, I’m going to refer to them as “he.” However, women did fight alongside their male relatives on the battlegrounds. To learn more about the women of the Revolutionary War, see the book Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America’s Independence by Carol Berkin.

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Great-Grandmother’s Swimsuit in Vintage Fashion Articles & Photos

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena searches old newspapers to find ads and stories about vintage swimsuits, giving us another glimpse into our ancestors’ lives.

It’s HOT outside and it’s the perfect time to enjoy a day at the beach. One day as I was trying to stay cool at home with the air conditioning, I was scanning family photos and came across a 1920s-era photo of my great-grandfather and his sister-in-law at the beach. Looking at the old family photo reminded me of what I love about family history research: discovering the stories of ordinary people’s lives. Our ancestors’ lives were much more than a birth, marriage, and death date. They took part in all sorts of activities, including recreations like visiting the beach during the summer.

photo of Oscar Philibert and Lillie Chatham

Photo: Oscar Philibert and Lillie Chatham. Credit: Gena Philibert-Ortega.

So what type of swimsuits did your ancestors wear? Swimsuits, like all types of fashion, have evolved through the years to reflect the morals, laws, form, and textiles of the times. According to the article “Swim Wear History” by the Vintage Fashion Guild, the bathing suits of ancient Greece resembled the bikinis of today! As time progressed, modesty and segregation between the sexes called for swim attire that lacked function. As swimming and beach visits became more popular in the 19th century, beach wear evolved to the swimsuit fashions seen today. That article goes on to say that those early Victorian suits made of wool covered everything on the human form but they also adhered to wet bodies, defeating their original purpose: modesty. This lack of function for swimsuits can be seen in photos from the early 20th century as well.

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Controversy has always followed the wearing of swimsuits. Older generations voiced their disapproval of the younger generation showing too much skin—and in some cases the law has stepped in to make sure the public is well-covered. One example of someone who tried to push the envelope in what bathing beauties wore was the Australian professional swimmer and actress Annette Kellerman (1886-1975), who was an advocate of women wearing one-piece swimsuits instead of the impractical dress and pantaloons ensembles of the time. She was even arrested for wearing one of her one-piece suits on a U.S. beach.

photo of Annette Kellermann

Photo: pictorial post card, “Miss Annette Kellermann, Champion Lady Swimmer and Diver of the World.” Credit: State Library of New South Wales; Flickr the Commons.

Swimsuit Fashions through the 20th Century

This 1916 newspaper ad offers a swimsuit that pretty much covers every part of the body except the arms and neck. In describing this more “modern” suit, the writer states “that the suit is not the same as a half dozen years ago—a simple thing good enough to swim in.” As we read more about this ensemble and all of its pieces and design, it’s funny to see how language and descriptions have changed. I’m not sure how many women today would want to wear a swimsuit described as “…striped as a porch awning.” Modern-day women may take offense at someone commenting on their fashion choice looking like something that should be hanging off someone’s porch.

swimsuit ad, Charlotte Observer newspaper advertisement 11 July 1916

Charlotte Observer (Charlotte, North Carolina), 11 July 1916, page 7

It’s easy to see the style differences from the 1916 suit featured above and this “scantier” 1923 swimsuit. Scantier certainly describes this vintage swimsuit, with its “shorter trunks, narrower shoulder hands, and no sleeves.” It’s easy to understand how this suit style would be much easier to swim in as the model, Miss Martin of the Ziegfeld Follies, is quoted as saying.

swimsuit ad, Miami District Daily News newspaper advertisement 3 January 1922

Miami District Daily News (Miami, Oklahoma), 3 January 1922, page 3

While we most associate today’s bikinis as revealing swimsuits, women did wear two-piece swimsuits decades before the bikini, like this ad from 1937 describing how “an overskirt of white jersey dotted in red matches the ‘bra’ top of the suit, and is worn over red jersey shorts.”

swimsuit ad, National Labor Tribune newspaper advertisement 10 April 1937

National Labor Tribune (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), 10 April 1937, page 8

As younger generations look at the vintage swimsuit fashions from yesterday, they probably find amusement at past efforts to cover up on the beach, and wonder why our ancestors wore so much material. It would seem that each generation disapproves of the younger generations and their fashions—and vice versa. That’s as true for 1922 as for the bikini-wearing women of 1960, as shown in this article reporting comments from newspaper readers about the wearing of bikinis. Notice that listed with each name is also the commentators’ street address—a potentially valuable genealogy clue.

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My favorite quote is from Mrs. Nemitz who says of bikinis:

“Don’t think I’m old fashioned, because I’m not. I just don’t care for bikinis, and the men that I have talked to don’t care for them either.”

Good thing she didn’t know about what happened when the modest bathing costumes of her mother’s generation became wet—talk about revealing!

Bare Views on Bikinis, Plain Dealer newspaper article 2 July 1960

Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), 2 July 1960, page 12

So what did your female ancestors wear for a swimsuit? Were they daring and tried to show more than was allowed, or did they keep all covered up? Did they enjoy just dipping their toes into the ocean or did they need swimwear that allowed them freedom as they swam? Fashion history can provide an interesting look at our ancestors’ lives, and looking at swimwear reminds us of how similar some of our attitudes are to our ancestors’ opinions.

Related Vintage Fashion Articles:

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Tracing Your Colonial & Revolutionary Ancestry in Newspapers

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena shows how old newspapers provide a great opportunity to learn more about your Revolutionary War-era ancestors, especially considering that primary sources are hard to find for this time period.

Are you researching your family history all the way back to your Revolutionary War-era ancestors? Old newspapers are a great way to learn about your ancestry during America’s Colonial and Revolutionary periods.

painting: Washington Crossing the Delaware, by Emanuel Leutze

Painting: Washington Crossing the Delaware, by Emanuel Leutze (1851). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

For example, GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives date from 1690 to today. What does this mean for you? It means a great opportunity to learn more about your Revolutionary War-era ancestors even when primary sources are few and far between. Remember that newspapers can hold rich family history information that details a person’s life story from cradle to grave.

Limit Your Ancestry Search—but Not Too Much

It’s natural to want to go straight to the advanced genealogy search engine on GenealogyBank to start your newspaper research. The advanced search engine is where we can limit or narrow our search, broadening it beyond just names by adding dates, and by including or excluding keywords. The advanced search box is a vital tool for researching a common surname. When researching a Revolutionary War-era ancestor, limiting the search to those years the ancestor was alive can help you filter out search results that aren’t about your specific ancestor.

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However, there is a caution: remember that the more information you add to a search engine the fewer results you will receive. Keep a log of your ancestor searches and results. Try a combination of keyword searches and note your results. One important aspect in researching Colonial newspapers is that language is much different now than in those early American newspapers. Don’t add too many “modern” words to your keyword search, as these may result in poor search results. Words associated with the cost of goods are just one example of a difference that could mean finding what you are looking for or not. It can be beneficial to take some time to read the newspaper from your ancestor’s area and time to get a sense of the layout, articles, and language.

Not sure which Colonial and Revolutionary newspapers are available on GenealogyBank? Find a list in this blog article: 27 Colonial Newspapers to Trace Your Early American Ancestry.

list of Colonial and Revolutionary newspapers available in GenealogyBank

Consider the possible articles that could exist about your 18th century ancestor in these early American Colonial newspapers!

While you won’t know what specific articles your ancestor may have been mentioned in until you do an actual search, simply reading through some of these early American newspapers can help to get a sense of what news was reported during their lifetime. When researching a Revolutionary War soldier for example, look for anything that might provide some historical context (think pension laws and battle descriptions), but would not necessarily mention him by name. Of course, with a specific search you are looking for articles like a pension list or an obituary that would mention him by name.

Revolutionary War Desertions

War is hell, and in every conflict some soldiers desert for a whole host of reasons. It makes sense that during the Revolutionary War desertions would be reported in the newspapers, so that the community could read the description and help find the missing soldier.

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In this 1777 desertion ad from a Pennsylvania newspaper, two soldiers are described. These descriptions are not limited to their physical attributes. One of the soldiers is listed as “Thomas Robinson…a stout well-made Irishman, about 35 years of age, fair complexion, and short dark hair, a little bald; he is a very great drunkard, and when sober his hands tremble as if afflicted with the palsy; he is very talkative, and speaks with his native brogue; his occupation is ditching and threshing.”

article about deserters in the American Revolutionary War, Pennsylvania Packet newspaper article 25 February 1777

Pennsylvania Packet (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 25 February 1777, page 1

War Pensions

Did your ancestor receive a pension? Newspapers may include lists of those receiving pensions, such as this one from a 1796 Massachusetts newspaper. Notice it includes the name and rank of the soldiers as well as the amount of each pension.

Pension Law, Western Star newspaper article 19 September 1796

Western Star (Stockbridge, Massachusetts), 19 September 1796, page 3

Stories of Your Ancestors’ Personal Lives

The newspaper isn’t just a place to find your ancestors’ names; it’s also a great place to learn more about their personal lives and the times they lived in. In this example the invalid pension law is explained, as well as when the pension is paid and the application process.

Invalid Pensioners, Salem Gazette newspaper article 16 February 1790

Salem Gazette (Salem, Massachusetts), 16 February 1790, page 3

Don’t forget that you can narrow your newspaper search by type of article. This is a great time-saving research tool in cases when you receive numerous “hits” or are looking for something specific. To narrow your search by type of article from the results list, click on the links to the left of the list, under the heading “Newspaper Archives.”

screenshot showing the newspaper article types on GenealogyBank's search results page

Combine Original Document Finds with Newspapers

Found your ancestor’s military file or pension record? Great! Follow that up by looking for information in the newspaper.

In the case of a common name, such as my ancestor Revolutionary War soldier Benjamin Jones, a search in the newspaper may bring up numerous hits but they may not be my Benjamin Jones. For that reason, consider using what you find in original documents in conjunction with the newspaper to help you narrow your search and analyze the evidence.

What can you find in the newspaper about your Colonial and Revolutionary War ancestry? Plenty! Those genealogy records can be an important and colorful addition to your family history.

Related Colonial & Revolutionary War Ancestry Articles:

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History of Fireworks in America: News from 1700s Forward

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena searches old newspapers to find stories about the history of fireworks and their use for celebrations in America.

With the recent Fourth of July celebrations for Independence Day in America, we all have been seeing and hearing a lot of fireworks lately.

photo of Fourth of July fireworks over the nation’s Capitol

Photo: Fourth of July fireworks over the nation’s Capitol. Source: Library of Congress.

Letter from John Adams

It seems that the idea to celebrate our nation’s independence has always included fireworks. In a 3 July 1776 letter to his wife Abigail, future President John Adams declared:

The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the Day of Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more.*

(Note: Adams was referring to the unanimous vote by the Continental Congress on 2 July 1776 in support of a resolution of independence from Great Britain. The formal Declaration of Independence was ratified 4 July 1776, which is why we celebrate Independence Day on the Fourth of July.)

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Adams’ letter was reprinted in various newspapers well into the 19th century. It was even recalled in this 1893 California advertisement which proclaims: “Boys, how are you going to celebrate the glorious Fourth? With Fireworks of course, like true and patriotic little Americans.” Adams’ letter ran across the top of the ad, above a cartoon of Uncle Sam handing fireworks to little boys, promising them a supply of fireworks “with every Boy’s Suit sold in the Juvenile Department, no matter what price suit it may be.” More than one company used the award of fireworks as a motivator to get kids to sell or buy their product.

ad for fireworks, San Francisco Chronicle newspaper advertisement, 25 June 1893

San Francisco Chronicle (San Francisco, California), 25 June 1893, page 14

While we celebrate the 4th of July and not the 2nd as stated in Adams’ letter, the spirit is still the same: revelries including fireworks are all part of the holiday festivities.

The History of Fireworks

The history of fireworks predates those first July celebrations here in the United States of America. Most historians believe that fireworks originated in China prior to 1000 A.D., when bamboo would be heated until it exploded. Fireworks evolved to include ingredients used for gunpowder.**  No matter when they were actually discovered, fireworks have long been a part of various celebrations in the United States.

Do you think that our ancestors had plain, not-so-exciting fireworks? Well you would be wrong. Fireworks makers have always been creative. Consider this 1901 newspaper article’s description of fireworks: balloon fireworks that, when released into the air, pop and leave behind

elephants and fish and as many animals as Noah had in the ark to float around, with rockets and roman candles shooting out of them. They can be bought with attachments which will make music too.

This old newspaper article further describes fireworks

rising like the Eiffel tower of fire to an immense height, with a grand explosion, from a gorgeous veil of feathery plumes reaching nearly to the ground, embellished with topaz and emerald comets intertwining in their flight. Amid the clouds they display a broad, swelling spread of liquid gold in streamers of glittering radiance, with feathery edges gradually spreading and dissolving into a cloud of sparkling mist. Bursting in midheaven, they form an aurora…shower of electric jewels of emeralds and sapphire tints falling slowly to the earth.

What a great fireworks show!

Fireworks for 1901, Jackson Citizen Patriot newspaper article 3 July 1901

Jackson Citizen Patriot (Jackson, Michigan), 3 July 1901, page 3

Explosive Danger

There’s no doubt fireworks are dangerous. Reading late 19th and early 20th century newspapers, it becomes clear that some of the concerns still held today by city officials and firefighters existed during our ancestors’ time. While the dangers of fireworks are many—everything from the manufacture to the handling, storage and subsequent igniting of the device—fireworks have been known to result in fires, injuries, and even death.

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Because of this associated danger, various laws including the banning of displays have been a part of fireworks history in the United States. Even in my lifetime, here in California we have gone from setting off fireworks in our driveways, to fireworks being banned for individual sale, to municipalities cancelling fireworks displays because of budget shortfalls and drought conditions. Reading through historical newspapers, it seems that life hasn’t changed too much.

Consider this newspaper article about an explosion at a fireworks factory in 1904. The explosion killed three people and injured six.

Three Lives Lost in a Fire Following Explosion of Fireworks, Jackson Citizen Patriot newspaper article 28 June 1904

Jackson Citizen Patriot (Jackson, Michigan), 28 June 1904, page 1

While the explosion occurred on the building’s first floor where the fireworks factory was located, two of the victims killed were actually working on the third floor for a hat company. A newspaper article appearing a few days later provided information from the coroner’s inquest including drawings of some of the witnesses.

Inquest Fails to Determine Cause of Fireworks Horror, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper article 3 July 1904

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 3 July 1904, page 5

Fireworks Aren’t Just for the 4th of July

While fireworks are probably most associated with the Fourth of July, then as now they are set off for other celebratory occasions or events. State fairs, amusements parks and baseball stadiums all use fireworks as a way to make a day out more memorable.

fireworks ad for the Utah State Fair, Salt Lake Telegram newspaper advertisement 27 September 1917

Salt Lake Telegram (Salt Lake City, Utah), 27 September 1917, page 13

Our ancestors even used fireworks to commemorate Christmas. In this advertisement for Christmas trees, fireworks feature prominently—a combination many of us would find odd today.

ad for Christmas trees and fireworks, Charleston News and Courier newspaper advertisement 3 January 1895

Charleston News and Courier (Charleston, South Carolina), 3 January 1895, page 4

Fireworks have helped us celebrate occasions throughout our country’s history. Read more about how your ancestor’s hometown celebrations played out by searching in GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives.

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*From the National Park Service webpage “National Mall Independence Day Celebration” at http://www.nps.gov/foju/historyandculture.htm. Accessed 2 July 2014.
**From the A&E History webpage “Fireworks’ Vibrant History” by Jennie Cohen at http://www.history.com/news/fireworks-vibrant-history. Accessed 2 July 2014.

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Researching Legal, Probate & Court Records Found in Newspapers

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena shows how those small-print legal notices found in the back of newspapers—often ignored by most readers—can provide important clues to help you break through your genealogy brick walls.

When reading your daily newspapers, are there certain sections you skip over? For many people there is the tendency to skip over the legal notices, typically found in the back of the paper, densely squeezed together and printed in a too-small font. As readers we may think: “why should I read the legal notices?” But as genealogists it would be a mistake to skip over them—they can be a great source of family history information.

Legal notices are notifications placed in the newspaper that alert the community of judicial actions. These can be matters involving estates, divorces, taxes, and land transactions. A 1957 Wisconsin statute states that a legal notice is defined as “…every summons, order, citation, notice of sale, or other notice and every other advertisement of any description required to be published by law or in pursuance of any law or of any order of any court.”* These public legal notices can lead you to records found at the courthouse, a county assessor or recorder’s office, and even additional newspaper articles.

How to Find Legal Notices on GenealogyBank

One way to search for your ancestor in GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives is to use the search engine, either the basic or the advanced search, to enter a name, perhaps a place, and even a date or date range. But don’t forget that GenealogyBank allows you to narrow your search results further by article type. Using the list found on the left hand side of your results page, choose the  Legal, Probate & Court option to search for your ancestor in legal notices.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's search results page showing the Legal, Probate and Court records search option

Probate Notices in Newspapers

So what is of genealogical value in these legal notices? Plenty. Consider the notices of probate actions. One of my friends was researching her grandfather who had died and left a will. Problem was, the county courthouse serving the area where he died required payment for a search of the probate index—and then, after she paid, responded by telling her there was no court case. She knew there was a probate case because her father had been the executor of the will. So what do you do when an official entity tells you there isn’t a case? I suggested she turn to newspapers and search in the legal notices section. Sure enough, she was able to find the probate case—and with a copy of that legal notice, went back to the court clerks who were then able to provide her with the file.

probate notices, Duluth News-Tribune newspaper articles 25 January 1908

Duluth News-Tribune (Duluth, Minnesota), 25 January 1908, page 9

Probate notices in newspapers can provide you names, dates, and information that you can follow up with at the courthouse. In the case of these notices from 1908 in Minnesota, the name of the deceased, the person administering the probate, the judge, and the next court date are listed.

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Genealogy Tip: Even if your ancestor left no will, there still could have been a probate case. Did they own land, a home, or owe money? Make sure to check for the existence of a probate.

Divorce Notices in the News

I’ve written about newspaper divorce notices on this blog before (see How to Find Your Ancestor’s Divorce Records in the Newspaper). Divorces notices can show up in various newspaper articles, but don’t forget that a notice requiring an appearance in court will be found in the legal notices. In these examples from 1914 Philadelphia, the defendant is told that their spouse has “filed a libel in the Court of Common Pleas…praying a divorce against you.” Those who do not show up on the date provided in this notice are forewarned “you will be liable to have a divorce granted in your absence.” Notice that in these examples, the court date and address of the defendant are listed.

divorce legal notices, Philadelphia Inquirer newspaper articles 22 May 1914

Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), 22 May 1914, page 16

Are you new to court research? On GenealogyBank’s Legal, Probate & Court Records search box, there is a link you can click to get court record search tips.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's Legal, Probate and Court records search page showing the Search Tips link

Trustee’s Sale Notices

One of the genealogical benefits of legal notices is that our women ancestors do appear in these postings. Unfortunately, many of these notices are about the more difficult periods of a person’s life, as in this example of listings of Trustee’s Sales. As you can see, both the wife and the husband are listed in these sale notices. These 1891 examples are a good reminder that our ancestors may have been facing difficult financial times, just as many people faced in the more recent housing market collapse. If you find a notice where your ancestor’s home or property is being foreclosed on, you may want to conduct additional research to determine if there was a larger economic collapse that affected their lives. While we are most familiar with the Great Depression of the 1930s, other similar economic crises have happened in U.S. history. For example, two years after these newspaper notices appeared, there was a financial panic in 1893 that included the closing of many banks and high unemployment rates.

Auction Sales by Trustee, Kansas City Times newspaper article 29 January 1891

Kansas City Times (Kansas City, Missouri), 29 January 1891, page 9

Legal notices in newspapers help tell the story of our ancestors’ lives. While they are often ignored, these legal notices contain rich information including names, street addresses, and dates with the court that can help us find additional documentation to fill out the details on our family trees.

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*Burke, James J. Wisconsin Statutes, 1957: Embracing All General Statutes in Force at the Close of the General Session of 1957. Racine, 1957, p. 3551.

Related Legal & Court Record Articles:

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Planning Your Genealogy Trip: Summer Vacations for Genealogists

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena gives advice and provides online resources for planning your summer genealogy vacation.

What do you have planned this summer? Taking a vacation? How about a genealogy vacation? While it may be hard to convince the rest of your family that a vacation composed of genealogical research is a good idea, there are trips and tours to satisfy everyone’s interests and budget. Whether you want to focus on just genealogy research or you also want to see the world, there is something for you.

photo of a cruise ship

Photo: cruise ship. Credit: David Ortega.

Heritage Tours

Ever consider traveling to your ancestral home? Whether that’s here in the United States or “across the pond,” there may be a heritage tour that can help you see the sights and take in some family history research.

For example, Genealogy Tours of Scotland run by genealogist Christine Woodcock is an opportunity to do onsite research in Scotland, with assistance from local archivists and researchers. This annual trip includes 10 days of research at ScotlandsPeople Centre, the National Library, and more—as well as time for touring and experiencing the Scotland of your ancestors.

Various heritage tours exist worldwide. To find one in the area of your ancestor’s hometown, try Googling the name of the country and the phrase “heritage tours.” Some travel companies offer several heritage tours including the company Family Tree Tours.

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Going to the Promised Land

OK, maybe Salt Lake City is not “the” Promised Land, but it comes pretty close for family historians. Many genealogists dream of an opportunity to go to Salt Lake City to research in the Family History Library. It can be intimidating to go to a place and do family research when you’ve never been there before. A retreat might be the answer to help you not only navigate your way around the Library and maximize your research time, but also to benefit from the expertise of those who are familiar with the Library and Salt Lake City.

The Salt Lake Christmas Tour, sponsored by Family Roots Publishing, is in its 30th year and features genealogy professionals providing educational lectures and assistance at the Family History Library. This tour attracts a large group and many attendees participate year after year.

Want to go to Salt Lake but still be able to ask someone for help? Consider taking professional genealogist Michael John Neill’s annual Library Research Trip. For a nominal fee you can join Michael at the Family History Library for a week, with an optional morning educational presentation and assistance as you research throughout the day. You can read more about this year’s trip and plan for the 2015 trip at http://rootdig.blogspot.com/2013/10/salt-lake-family-history-library.html.

Genealogy Cruises

Where do you want to sail? A cruise is a great vacation idea—and when you add a vacation destination with a genealogy education you have the perfect get-away.

There are several genealogy cruises that you may want to consider. United States software company Legacy Family Tree’s yearly cruise combines exotic locales with speakers on a variety of topics. This year’s genealogy cruise is unique: it’s a back-to-back cruise opportunity with the first leg of the cruise, two weeks, starting in Japan and making its way to Hong Kong. On the second leg of the tour, you can concentrate on vacationing with stops at ports in Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore. As of this time, classes and speakers have not been announced but you can read more about this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity on their website. If you’re unsure about being out to sea for two weeks to a month, then maybe a shorter cruise would be of more interest to you. Legacy announced that in 2015 they will have a one-week Western Caribbean cruise.

Another genealogy software company, Wholly Genes (the makers of The Master Genealogist), has its annual cruise this year in the late Fall. Organized by Heritage Books, this year’s cruise will leave from Los Angeles and visit the Mexican Riviera. You can learn more about the speakers on this cruise by visiting their website. This cruise will feature 17 hours of “genealogy, technology and DNA instruction.” I’ve been on a cruise to the Mexican Rivera in November and it’s a great time to leave the cold and enjoy some Mexican sunshine.

Are you a seasoned cruiser? Looking for more frequent genealogy cruise opportunities? Consider Australian-based Unlock the Past’s cruises. With multiple cruises each year, Unlock the Past and their international team of genealogy professionals has something for everyone. Cruises for the next three years include trips to the British Isles, Australia to the Baltic, and a Transatlantic voyage. If you’re not sold on the benefits of a genealogy cruise, I would suggest their web page 20 Reasons to Join an Unlock the Past History & Genealogy Cruise.

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Planning a Family Research Trip on Your Own

Maybe you like to strike out on your own. You might want to consider putting together your own genealogy trip that combines visiting your ancestral homeland with research opportunities.

How do you start? Make a list of all the travel details you will need to sort out, including transportation to your destination and transportation while you are there, as well as lodging and food. You may want to plan those details on your own with the help of a discount site like Kayak. For genealogy vacation destination ideas, be sure to check out our Genealogy Travel board on Pinterest.

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Next, figure out what family history research can be done while you are there. Identify nearby libraries, archives, and museums and what resources they have. Make sure to exhaust online digitized items that you are able to access from home so as to not waste your time while you are there. Email librarians and archivists with questions about on-site research. You might even consider contacting a local genealogist in the area for a consultation, or to get help navigating repositories while you are there. There is a real benefit from working with someone who knows all of the ins and outs of an area and the repositories.

However you decide to take your next genealogy trip, plan ahead to make the most of what is offered. And most of all plan to have lots of family research fun!

Travel Tip: When I’m taking a genealogy trip I try to pack as light as possible just in case I pick up some books or other research materials along the way. A SmartPhone or Tablet is a must. With this one tool you can take photos, scan images, audio or video record your travels or interviews, refer to your family tree through an app or via a cloud storage site like Dropbox, take notes, refer to research plans, get directions, and surf the Internet.

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1964 World’s Fair: History, Photos & Memorabilia

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena uses old newspaper articles—and a friend’s photo collection—to reminisce about the 1964 World’s Fair.

Have you been to a World’s Fair? Did you or a family member go to the 1964 World’s Fair in New York? World’s Fairs, also known as World Expos, originated with the first fair held in 1851 in London. That fair, known as “The Great Exhibition,” was visited by an estimated 6 million people—and it was just the beginning of great events that showcased countries, industries, and cultures.

The 1964 World’s Fair was the largest one held in New York, which also hosted the World’s Fair in 1853 and 1939. The fair was the brainchild of businessmen who had fond memories of attending the 1939 fair and wanted that same experience for their families.*

photo of sailors looking at the exhibits at the 1964 World's Fair in New York

Photo: 1964-65 World’s Fair. Credit: Doug Coldwell, Wikimedia Commons.

Tourism

The World’s Fair was not only an event in and of itself, but out-of-state families may have used it as an opportunity to tour other nearby American sights. In this Louisiana newspaper advertisement, bus tours of nearby attractions like Washington D.C., Monticello, and Canada are advertised. For example, a friend of mine who went to the 1964 World’s Fair with his family also visited New York’s Central Park and the newly renovated John F. Kennedy International Airport. The World’s Fair would have been a good excuse for families to drive cross-country and visit several famous attractions to make it a memorable vacation.

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newspaper ad for bus tours at the 1964 World's Fair, Times-Picayune newspaper advertisement 24 May 1964

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 24 May 1964, page 39

Futurama

Some of this World’s Fair exhibits showed visitors what life would be like in the future. Glimpses they could have witnessed included the IBM building with its technology demonstrations, including a computer quickly translating Russian text to English. General Electric provided a nuclear fusion demonstration, and General Motors provided attendees with a vision of what the future would look like in their Futurama show. And not only could families take a glimpse into the future, they could also experience it firsthand with fair rides such as the monorail.** In some ways the fair was a combination of The Jetsons meets Disneyland (three exhibits marked the debut of what would be future Disneyland attractions).

a monorail ticket from the 1964 World’s Fair

Photo: monorail ticket from the 1964 World’s Fair. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

World’s Fair TV Special

Not everyone could attend the World’s Fair—but even those who couldn’t travel to New York may have experienced it from the comfort of their homes, by watching it on television. This newspaper article about a World’s Fair TV special remarks that Helovision would be used, a system that allows footage to be filmed from a helicopter, showing the entire fair and its attractions.

article about a TV special on the 1964 World's Fair, Boston Herald newspaper article 19 April 1964

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 19 April 1964, page 61

1964 World’s Fair Memorabilia

Maybe you’re too young to have experienced the 1964 World’s Fair? Maybe you didn’t have the opportunity to attend? Chances are that you may have had a later (even a very recent) experience with retired exhibits or materials from the fair. Aside from some of the structures still remaining at the site of the fairgrounds in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in New York, some structures, such as the Unisphere, have been immortalized in movies including Men in Black, Iron Man 2 and Captain America.

photo of the 1964 World’s Fair Unisphere

Photo: 1964 World’s Fair Unisphere. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

Other structures and displays from the 1964 World’s Fair can be found throughout the United States today. Been to Disneyland in Southern California? If you have and you’ve ridden on “It’s a Small World,” you’ve experienced a World’s Fair attraction. “Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln,” another Disneyland attraction featuring an animatronic Abe, was originally featured in the Illinois State Pavilion at the fair.

photo of the “It’s a Small World” exhibit from the 1964 World’s Fair

Photo: “It’s a Small World” from the 1964 World’s Fair. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

Dinosaurs Popular

Judging from the old newspaper articles I’ve read about the fair, and the family photos I’ve seen, it would seem that the Tyrannosaurs Rex found in the Sinclair Dinoland exhibit was the most popular dinosaur to pose by.

photo of a Tyrannosaurs Rex exhibit from the 1964 World’s Fair

Photo: Tyrannosaurs Rex exhibit from the 1964 World’s Fair. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

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This pre-fair newspaper article even encourages photographers to take a “wide angle lens for full length shots and a telephoto lens for portraits.”

Cameras Catch Dinosaurs on Prowl (at the 1964 World's Fair), Richmond Times newspaper article 10 November 1963

Richmond Times (Richmond, Virginia), 10 November 1963, page 142

Those dinosaurs from Dinoland can still be seen today, found in several states: T Rex and Brontosaurus are found at the Dinosaur Valley State Park in Texas; the Cleveland Zoo has Ankylosaurus; and Stegosaurus can be found at Dinosaur National Monument in Utah, just to name a few.

Another Popular Exhibit

Dinosaurs aren’t the only exhibits that found a permanent home elsewhere. The US Royal Tire Ferris Wheel currently resides in Allen Park, Michigan, as a static display.

photo of the US Royal Tire Ferris Wheel from the 1964 World’s Fair

Photo: US Royal Tire Ferris Wheel from the 1964 World’s Fair. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

Old newspapers, such as GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives, are a great place to look for articles that can help enhance your family’s story of going to the World’s Fair.

Genealogy Tip: When searching GenealogyBank for events your family attended, utilize the keyword search and indicate the words that you want the search to include—and even the words to exclude. Then narrow your search by a date or date range as well as a place. However, in the case of a large event like the World’s Fair, it would be featured in newspapers all over the United States—so don’t limit the location for your initial search.

To learn more about the 1964-65 fair, also check out the book The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair by Bill Cotter and Bill Young.

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* The Story of the 1964/1965 New York World’s Fair by Bill Young on nywf64.com. Accessed 20 May 2014. http://www.nywf64.com/fair_story01.shtml
** You can read more about the fair’s attractions at the nywf64 website: http://www.nywf64.com/index.html

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4 GenealogyBank Search Tips from 2014 SCGS Jamboree Conference

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena—who gave two genealogy presentations on behalf of GenealogyBank at the recent Southern California Genealogical Society Jamboree—describes some of the search tips she discussed at the Jamboree.

We are back from the recent Southern California Genealogical Society Jamboree. It’s always great to meet with GenealogyBank members and hear about their newspaper discoveries. If you weren’t able to attend 2014 SCGS genealogy Jamboree, that’s ok—many of the presentations are available online. For example, I made two presentations on behalf of GenealogyBank, “Using America’s Ethnic Newspapers to Find and Document Your Family” and “GenealogyBank Inside and Out,” and these were recorded and are now available from Conference Resource.

photo of Gena Philibert-Ortega and Duncan Kuehn staffing the GenealogyBank booth at the Jamboree genealogy conference

Photo: Gena Philibert-Ortega and Duncan Kuehn staffing the GenealogyBank booth at the Jamboree conference. Credit: from the author’s collection.

One of the benefits of a genealogy conference is the opportunity to learn new tips to search and make family history discoveries. I thought it would be helpful to share some of the genealogy tips we provided at Jamboree for you to try at home.

Also, remember that you don’t have to attend a conference to have us help you with your GenealogyBank searches. The GenealogyBank Blog constantly provides genealogy tips, and you can always give us a call (1-866-641-3297) and we will work with you to help you trace your family tree.

1) Locations: Location, Location, Location—or Not

Family history researchers are accustomed to searching through a genealogy database by entering an ancestor’s name, date, and location. In a previous blog article, Genealogy Search Engine Types & Tips: OCR vs. Indexed Databases, I discussed how searching indexed content is different than content that is being searched using Optical Character Recognition (OCR), like newspapers. While narrowing down a location is essential in researching other types of information, such as a census return, in newspaper research a specific location may be less important because a newspaper article can appear in multiple newspapers and locations—sometimes on the other side of the country from where your ancestor lived.

As you prepare your search on GenealogyBank, take some time to plan out different types of searches.

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For example, if I’m searching for John C. McNeil who lived from 1823 to 1909 and spent time in Arizona, I would want to conduct searches that would include his name, date range, and place. But then I may want to a search with just his name (with or without the middle initial) and a date range. Because he lived in several different states, I don’t want to always limit the place because I will miss mentions of him in other localities. Even if your ancestor didn’t move around a lot, they can still be mentioned in other newspapers outside of their immediate area. In the case of ethnic newspapers, the newspaper can be aimed at a group from a larger geographic region. Remember that some newspapers may serve a county area, and not just a city. And in the case of a tragedy or even a human interest story, the article can be picked up and printed in newspapers across the United States.

So the bottom line is: don’t include the name of the place or the newspaper location in every search you conduct.

2) Keywords: What Words Do You Include in Your Search?

One of the great features of the GenealogyBank search engine is that you can include or exclude words. So let’s say the surname you are researching is also a noun or a verb, like Miller or Walk. Use the exclude keywords box to exclude certain words. If I’m researching on the surname Baker, I may exclude the word “bread” or “bakery” because I do not want results about bakers, I want results about people with that surname.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's search page

Have multiple words you want to exclude or include? Just place a comma in between each word. But don’t try to include or exclude too many keywords or you may unnecessarily narrow your results.

3) Hacking Genealogy Searches: Type outside the Search Box

The GenealogyBank search engine has a place for a last and first name, but that doesn’t mean you have to enter those names in those boxes. The search engine is looking for whatever characters you have typed—it doesn’t know what words are names and what words are other keywords, so you could enter all of those characters (keywords) in the “Include Keywords” box.

However, it might help you organize your searches if you enter your ancestor’s last and first names in those boxes, then keep changing terms in the “Include Keywords” and “Exclude Keywords” boxes as you continue trying to find as many articles as you can about your target ancestor.

The search engine also allows you to use wildcards (such as the characters ? or * ) to substitute for letters. Say your ancestor’s first name is Alexander. You could try a search on Alex?. This way you would find results that list him as Alexander or Alex.

One additional genealogy search tip: conduct an “exact phrase” search. Try searching on “John C McNeil” (quotation marks around the words indicate it’s an exact phrase) instead of just John C McNeil (and remember this entire phrase can be typed into one search box). By putting the phrase in quotation marks, you are telling the search engine to search for that exact phrase, and not articles that contain a John, a C, and a McNeil somewhere in the text.

But remember; don’t limit your search to only exact phrase searches, or you will miss results where the name is slightly different than what you have entered.

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4) Major Life Events & Gatherings

One of the biggest “aha!” moments I had during the Jamboree was talking to the staff at the GenealogyBank booth and learning this search tip: try searching on an event your ancestor was involved in without adding their name. When an event is reported in the newspaper (think car crash, natural disaster, or other tragedy), names associated with that event (such as survivors, victims, witnesses, and rescue personnel) are not always mentioned in the initial reports. The event will most likely be reported in articles over a period of time, and as those articles unfold, names may be added.

Say for example you know that your ancestor was involved in a ship accident. Don’t search on their name initially; instead search on the name of the ship or the date the disaster happened. Gather all the newspaper articles you can find about that event to learn more about this incident that affected your ancestor’s life—but don’t limit your initial searches to your ancestor’s name because you will miss important information, especially in some of the first reports about the event. You can later do a search using your ancestor’s name to see if there was a report specifically focusing on your ancestor.

Those are some of the genealogy search tips I explained during my Jamboree presentations, as well as some lessons I learned by attending the Jamboree, listening to other presentations, talking to the audience, and discussing genealogy with the staff at the GenealogyBank booth. I hope they help you with your own family history research.

See You at the Jamboree Next Year!

Going to a genealogy conference? Good chance GenealogyBank will be there. Make sure to stop by the GenealogyBank booth and let us help you search for your ancestors. Not able to visit us at a particular conference? No problem—give us a call (1-866-641-3297) and GenealogyBank’s helpful support staff will assist you with your family search questions. You can also find genealogy search tips on our site’s Genealogist Q&A section.

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Genealogy Checklist: 13 Types of Records to Include in Your Research

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena provides a handy tool to help with your family history research: a checklist of 13 types of genealogy records that you can use for each ancestor you search for, to make sure your research is thorough.

After conducting online searches through your favorite genealogy websites, you may feel like you’ve hit a brick wall. This is understandable—it’s easy to become overwhelmed with multiple databases and lose sight of what sources might help you answer your research question.

Before you decide you’re facing that brick wall, consult this checklist of frequently-used family history sources. A checklist of sources can help you plan out your research and keep track of where you have searched. Print this out for each individual you search for, and refer to it as you research your family history.

illustration of a magnifying glass

Illustration: magnifying glass. Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

1) Census Records

One of the first places we often look for our family is in the U.S. Federal Census. The census should be your go-to source for trying to place your ancestor in time. The census was taken every 10 years starting in 1790. (However, the 1890 census was largely destroyed.) Because of privacy concerns, the latest census you can access is 1940.

As you think about your ancestor in the census, don’t forget that other census schedules exist aside from the familiar population schedules. Depending on the year, you may also want to consult the Mortality, Agriculture, Slave, Veterans and Defective, Dependent and Delinquent schedules.

Also take a note if the state your ancestor lived in conducted a state or territorial census. Not every state participated in such a census and in some cases a state may have only conducted one when it was still a territory, but a state census can often yield additional information not compiled in the federal census.

2) Church or Synagogue Records

What religion was your ancestor? This is important, especially considering that in some cases a religious record might take the place of a civil registration. What records should you look for? The answer is: it depends. It depends on where your ancestor lived, what religion they practiced, and what still exists.

Records that might exist include those that document baptisms, christenings, marriages, and deaths. Other religious records include: cemetery records, school records, censuses, meeting notes, membership lists, pew deeds, adoption records, excommunications, church periodical articles, directories, and church auxiliary records. Exhaust religious databases found online like the selection found at JewishGen. To find church records, consult the individual meeting house and then archives associated with that religious community, including academic institutions and seminaries. Also, consider conducting a place search in the Family History Library Catalog.

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3) Court Records

Even if you think your ancestor would have no interaction with the local court, don’t overlook searching at least the civil case index for their name. Our ancestors were involved in all sorts of legal matters, and it’s a myth to believe that only our modern society is “sue happy.” Some items to look for include minutes, orders/decrees, judgments, case files, indexes, criminal proceedings, naturalizations, and divorce petitions. Learn more about what court records exist by reading the book The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy by Val D. Greenwood. Note that you can also find court case files and courtroom transcripts in GenealogyBank’s newspaper archives.

4) Death Records

Death results in a lot of paperwork. Sure, there’s the death certificate—but that’s just the beginning. There can be paperwork from the hospital, funeral home and cemetery. What other paperwork can be found? Death certificates, newspapers (including articles, legal notices, funeral notices, death notices and obituaries), funeral home records, pension records, church records, cemetery records, court records (to include a will or probate or in the case of an accident there might be a lawsuit), Coroner’s Inquest, city directories, and the Social Security Death Index. Notices from membership directories and publications may also offer clues.

5) Home Sources

Every genealogy project should begin with home sources. These are the heirlooms and “stuff” inherited and passed down through the generations. Sometimes just talking about your interest in genealogy will alert family members that you would be a grateful recipient of items that they have inherited. What are some possible home sources? Correspondence, newspaper clippings, photos, scrapbooks, diaries and journals, family Bibles, naturalization paperwork, funeral home cards, and work- and school-related papers. As you try to find home sources, don’t forget to use social media to connect with long-lost cousins who have also inherited heirlooms.

6) Land Records

Did your ancestor own land or a home? You’ll want to search for a grantee/grantor index, deeds, mortgages, patents and grants. These records can be found anywhere from the Family History Library, a local courthouse or a county recorder’s office, to the National Archives. Make sure to plan out what you are looking for and search online for what entity has that record.

7) Major Life Events

Let’s face it, a birth or marriage can result in all kinds of documentation. Everything from home sources (think baby books and photo albums filled with greeting cards and descriptions of the big day), to official government records (vital record certificates) and church records. Don’t forget newspaper articles about the actual event (birth or marriage) as well as articles about the engagement, elopement or milestone anniversaries. Marriage records that could exist include: banns, bonds, licenses/applications, and certificates.

8) Military Service Records

Did your ancestor serve in the military? If they were a soldier at any point, think about searching for military service records, pensions, bounty land grants, awards, draft registrations, unit histories, battle histories and maps. Been told that all of your ancestor’s military records burned? Make sure to check for a Final Pay Voucher and ask your recent vets about the DD214 which lists information about their service including awards earned.

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9) Historical Newspapers

Many of the life events we have mentioned were reported in newspaper articles. But don’t forget that your ancestor could be mentioned in all parts of the newspaper, including legal notices, advertisements, society pages, crime reports, and other general articles. Not sure what types of articles exist? On the GenealogyBank Blog we focus on a variety of newspaper articles and how they can assist your genealogical research.

10) Occupational Records

Even if your ancestor was “just a farmer,” an occupation can leave behind a paper trail. Consider items like paycheck stubs, occupational periodicals, union records, membership cards and records to professional groups. Mentions of occupations can also be found in the city directory.

11) Published Sources

There are many different types of published sources that can assist you throughout your family history research. In some cases, like that of unsourced family history books, they may be just a place to gather initial clues. In other cases, however, they can provide you with definitive information to confirm your ancestor’s place in time, such as city directories.

Make sure to consult biographical works on your ancestor or their associates, county and local histories, and periodical indexes like PERSI, Google Scholar and JSTOR.

12) School Days

What schools did your ancestor attend? Even if they only attended for a few years, records may be available. Consider what may be available from attending an Elementary, Secondary, High, or Vocational/Trade school, as well as a College or University. Papers may in some cases be found in the home, but also could be found in an archive or the Family History Library. Look for yearbooks and alumni directories, school newspapers, articles about school awards and events in local newspapers, award certificates, report cards, and school census records.

13) Tax Records

We all know the saying “nothing is certain but death and taxes,” and that is as true for us now as it was for our ancestors. Why search tax records? They can not only establish a place in time for your ancestors, but they help you better understand their lives.

Some ideas about tax records that could exist are: poll, personal property, real estate, income, federal, inheritance, and school taxes. Don’t forget that the newspaper also printed lists of those who were negligent in paying their taxes.

Is the above list of 13 genealogical sources totally comprehensive? No, of course not, but it provides a handy reference for your family history research. As you plan your genealogy searches, also consider what libraries, archives, and museums exist where your ancestor lived. They may have catalogs that will provide you with additional sources that you may not have known existed.

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