About Gena Philibert-Ortega

Gena Philibert-Ortega holds a Master’s degree in Interdisciplinary Studies and a Master’s degree in Religion. Presenting on various subjects involving genealogy, women’s studies and social history, Gena has spoken to groups throughout the United States and virtually to audiences worldwide. Gena is the author of hundreds of articles published in genealogy newsletters and magazines including Internet Genealogy, Family Chronicle, GenWeekly, FGS Forum, APG Quarterly and the WorldVitalRecords newsletter. She is the author of the books, Putting the Pieces Together, Cemeteries of the Eastern Sierra (Arcadia Publishing, 2007) and From the Family Kitchen (F + W Media, 2012). Gena is the editor of the Utah Genealogical Association’s journal Crossroads. An instructor for the National Institute for Genealogical Studies, Gena has written courses about social media and Google. She serves as Vice-President for the So. California Chapter of the Association of Professional Genealogists, board member of the Utah Genealogical Association and is a Director for the California State Genealogical Alliance. Her current research interests include social history, community, social history, community cookbooks, signature quilts and researching women’s lives.

Newspaper Crossword Puzzles & More Games Our Ancestors Played

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena shows some crossword puzzles and other games from old newspapers, giving a glimpse into the times our ancestors lived in—and, potentially, providing genealogy help because some of the names and addresses of contest winners were published in the newspaper.

Newspapers provide so much more than the news. Sure, there are the obituaries, legal notices, and vital record announcements that are so valuable to family historians. And as genealogists we all know the value of newspaper advertisements, social pages, and shipping news.

But there are also the bits that we don’t normally consider having historical or genealogical value. It’s important to remember that all parts of the newspaper contain not only a snapshot of our ancestor’s time—but even the possibility of names and information appearing in places in the newspaper you wouldn’t expect. One section that may not seem important is that containing games and puzzles.

Enter Last Name










Today, everyone is glued to their smartphones playing online games individually or with friends. Most likely you know someone who passes time playing Angry Birds, Candy Crush or Words with Friends. For our nineteenth and twentieth century ancestor, participating in a newspaper game or puzzle might have resulted in their name, and perhaps even address, being published.

Lone Ranger’s Nephew’s Horse: the Crossword

Although not the only type of puzzle found in the newspaper, crossword puzzles are probably the one we are most familiar with. The first crossword puzzle, which looks slightly different than the crosswords of today, appeared in the New York World in 1913. By the end of the 1920s, crosswords were found in newspapers nationwide.* While we might most associate the New York Times with newspaper crosswords, they actually didn’t print their first puzzle until 1942.**

Here’s an early crossword puzzle, from a 1915 Cleveland newspaper.

crossword puzzle, Plain Dealer newspaper article 10 January 1915

Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio), 10 January 1915, page 5

Crosswords were strategically placed in the newspaper, often next to advertisements. This placement forced readers to see advertisements, and potentially generate revenue for advertisers and the newspaper, as they searched for their beloved puzzle.***

It’s probably no surprise to learn that puzzles, and clues to those puzzles, change over time and reflect current events. According to the book Curious History of the Crossword: 100 Puzzles from Then and Now by Ben Tausig, puzzle clues from the World War II era included geography questions and foreign currencies. In some cases, puzzles found in the newspaper focused on current events, as in this 1945 Military Maze which includes military titles held by men who would be marching in World War I Armistice Day parades.

word puzzle, San Diego Union newspaper article 11 November 1945

San Diego Union (San Diego, California), 11 November 1945, page 3

Puzzle Contests

Working a puzzle isn’t just a solitary pursuit. In some cases the puzzle was also a contest. Newspaper contests provided cash prizes to children and adults.

puzzle contest, Boston Journal newspaper article 25 October 1910

Boston Journal (Boston, Massachusetts), 25 October 1910, page 8

In some cases prize award announcements might include names and addresses of winners, as does this 1924 Dallas newspaper article announcing that Miss Hazel Cobb, living at 5201 Live Oak Street in Dallas, had won first prize due to her correct answers.

Dallas Woman (Hazel Cobb) Wins Crossword Puzzle Prize, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 12 October 1924

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 12 October 1924, page 1

Children and Their Puzzles

Puzzle pages could also be found on newspaper pages dedicated to children. Marketing to kids has always been a successful advertising tactic, and with a page dedicated to kids that includes their names, social activities, games and jokes, the paper guaranteed itself revenue. This Massachusetts Boys and Girls Page from 1944 is a great example of what newspapers offered their child readers, including puzzles, riddles, stories, quizzes and scientific facts. One of the most interesting pieces on the page is the Defense Blunder which shows a cartoon of two women talking in the forest. Children are asked to name the mistake the women are making—keeping in mind that World War II was going on at the time. The answer reminds the children that forest saboteurs might be hiding listening for information, and they may be trying to set fire to precious timber/lumber supplies.

The Boys and Girls Page, Springfield Republican newspaper article 19 March 1944

Springfield Republican (Springfield, Massachusetts), 19 March 1944, page 42

What newspaper games did your ancestors play? Better yet, what prize did they win by participating in newspaper games and contests?

Do you love solving crossword puzzles like your ancestors? Search the newspaper archives to find thousands of printable crosswords to have fun sharpening your wordsmith skills.

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* American Crossword Puzzle Tournament. Brief History of Crossword Puzzles, http://www.crosswordtournament.com/more/wynne.html. Accessed 26 August 2014.
** About.com 20th century History. The first Crossword Puzzle. http://history1900s.about.com/od/1910s/qt/firstcrossword.htm. Accessed 26 August 2014.
*** Curious History of the Crossword: 100 Puzzles from Then and Now by Ben Tausig. p. 13.

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Nicodemus, Kansas: the History of America’s Black Towns

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena discusses the historic role that African American towns have played in American history, and shows how ethnic newspapers—such as those in GenealogyBank’s African American Newspaper Archives—can help you explore your family history and this part of America’s past.

Browsing through search results on GenealogyBank for our family history research, we may not always take the time to understand the communities that a newspaper represented. We typically are more focused on finding an ancestor’s name than researching the newspaper where their name is printed. The newspaper search results we peruse might be from newspapers in a city or county we are not familiar with. In other cases it may be a newspaper that serves a specific ethnic or religious community. And in some cases the newspaper may represent something even more.

If you search the newspaper titles for Kansas available on GenealogyBank, one city that is represented is Nicodemus. Nicodemus, Kansas, is a historic black town, settled by African Americans at the end of Civil War Reconstruction. Founded in 1877 and now a historic site, Nicodemus is the oldest and one of the few remaining Black settlements west of the Mississippi.*

plat map for Nicodemus, Kansas, a historic black town

Illustration: Nicodemus plat map. Source: Library of Congress.

Historical Black Towns

Nicodemus is not unique—since colonial times, African Americans have founded and settled “self-segregated” towns. These towns, especially after the Civil War, provided a place of safety and opportunity for families.** When the promises of Reconstruction didn’t happen, black towns provided African Americans with the opportunity that full citizenship offered Caucasians, including the ability to own businesses and land, hold public office and vote undisturbed in elections. According to the Library of Congress, at the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation on 1 January 1863, less than 8 percent of African Americans lived outside of the Southern United States. Even though the majority of African Americans still live in the South, there was a migration of some 60,000 African Americans in the 1870s to Kansas and the Oklahoma Indian Territories.***

African American Newspapers

The founding of historical black towns goes hand-in-hand with ethnic newspapers. According to Professor Rhonda Ragsdale, whose research on black towns led to her starting the website The Black Towns Project, newspapers played a huge role in the development of black towns. The men who founded these towns were involved in real estate and newspapers. In addition, they advertised in ethnic newspapers looking for potential settlers for their new towns.

The newspapers found in GenealogyBank’s African American Newspaper Archives encompass all types of newspapers, from religious, to ethnic papers serving a larger city, to those serving specifically black towns.

screenshot of the search page for GenealogyBank's African American Newspaper Archives

For example, GenealogyBank has two newspapers for Nicodemus, Kansas: the Nicodemus Cyclone and the Nicodemus Enterprise.

front page of the Nicodemus Cyclone newspaper 6 April 1888

Nicodemus Cyclone (Nicodemus, Kansas), 6 April 1888, page 1

To learn more about Nicodemus, see the Nicodemus National Historic Site page from the National Park Service, and the African American Mosaic: Nicodemus Kansas page from the Library of Congress. A list of historically black towns can be found at the website The Black Towns Project. Archives and libraries to help in your research include: The Black Towns Project Archive and Reading Room in Ada, Oklahoma; the Oklahoma History Center; and The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

Other historically black towns are also represented in GenealogyBank’s online collection, including newspapers for Langston, Oklahoma, and Mound Bayou, Mississippi.

Have an ancestor who lived in a black town? Professor Ragsdale confirms that “ethnic newspapers are an unexplored goldmine.” Your first stop needs to be researching newspapers that document the town’s community and history. You can learn more about GenealogyBank’s African American newspaper collection, which spans 1827-1999, by browsing the collection’s homepage.

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* Nicodemus National Historic Site. “Go to Kansas.” http://www.nps.gov/nico/index.htm Accessed 25 August 2014.
** The Black Towns Project. About the Project. http://www.blacktownsproject.org/ Accessed 25 August 2014.
*** The Library of Congress. African American Mosaic. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam008.html Accessed 25 August 2014

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The Crush, Texas Train Crash: a Bizarre and Deadly Spectacle

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena reads old newspaper articles to learn about a strange episode from the past: a fatal train crash that was deliberately staged in Texas in 1896 as a publicity stunt.

Our ancestors experienced some strange events that never made it into the history text books and have been largely forgotten now. In September 1896 many people witnessed—and even more read about in the newspapers and discussed with their family and friends—a fatal train crash in Texas that was caused deliberately as a bizarre public event.

There’s something about wrecks that fascinates us—it seems to be human nature to stare at them even though we know we shouldn’t. Our ancestors also had a difficult time averting their eyes from horrific disasters. Media outlets today know that purposely crashing vehicles and exploding things makes for good entertainment, and our 19th century ancestors would have agreed.

The Crash at Crush, Texas

The “Crash at Crush” event was a train wreck, literally, and it was all in the name of publicity. William G. Crush, an employee of the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad (known as the “Katy”), had the idea that he could use two aged train engines, crash them into each other, and people would come to witness the spectacle. And to make sure the crowds would be there, he started his publicity machine early—with newspaper articles and advertising, including announcing the schedule for the two doomed engines on their final trip to Crush. The two engines chosen for the event were brightly painted, one green and one red, and exhibited before the day of the train crash to stir up further interest.

article about the preparations for the train crash staged in Crush, Texas, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 11 September 1896

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 11 September 1896, page 3

For the crash site, Crush chose a spot in McLennan County, drilled two wells for drinking water for the spectators, and erected circus tents and a grandstand. Admission to the event was free.

Enter Last Name










On 15 September 1896 the crowds did come; an estimated 30,000-40,000 people were in attendance. The place where Crush staged the crash was known as “Crush, Texas,” a temporary “town” that was specifically created, and dismantled soon after, for the train wreck spectacle. While the event itself was free, attendees did have to pay for a train ticket to get to the crash site. For $2 you could hop a train anywhere in Texas to travel to Crush, 10 miles outside of Waco, to enjoy the festivities. William G. Crush thought of everything to make the event a success—or so he thought.

Crush had considered safety—but he didn’t prepare for every contingency. He constructed a special four-mile stretch of track to hold the two trains, and had the locomotive engineers jump off the trains once the engines were in motion. Spectators were kept a “safe” distance away. Even though Crush was assured that the crash would be safe for spectators, the unexpected happened when the two trains, at 45 miles per hour, crashed headlong into each other.

photo of the moment of impact of the train crash at Crush, Texas, on 15 September 1896

Photo: the moment of impact of the train crash at Crush, Texas, on 15 September 1896. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

According to this front-page newspaper report:

It was more than a collision. Both engines were completely telescoped and in spite of all precautions both boilers promptly exploded, hurling a shower of iron and steel for several hundred yards around, injuring [nine] persons, two seriously and two perhaps fatally.

article about the train crash at Crush, Texas, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 16 September 1896

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 16 September 1896, page 1

With death and destruction all around them you would assume that those in attendance dispersed right away, fleeing for the safety of home. But no—just like today, not only did people get closer to inspect the damage, they took pieces of the train home as souvenirs and had their photo taken next to the wreckage. Composer Scott Joplin even wrote a song about the event, one he appropriately entitled the “Great Crush Collision March.”*

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Eyewitness Accounts in the News

Sixty years after the crash, the Dallas Morning News published eyewitness accounts that recounted everything from the infamous Texas train crash itself to the souvenirs taken from the wreckage. One man, Clitus Jones, stated that a hunk of the train metal was used in his childhood Waco home as a doorstop.

eyewitness accounts of the train crash at Crush, Texas, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 6 May 1956

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 6 May 1956, section 3, page 1

William G. Crush

William G. Crush, the man responsible for the crash, was immediately fired. However, after there wasn’t a huge public uproar over the catastrophe, the Katy hired Crush back the very next day—and he continued working for the railroad and retired after 46 years of service.

obituary for William G. Crush, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 13 April 1943

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 13 April 1943, page 4

His obituary stated:

The [train crash] exhibition was never repeated, but Mr. Crush was shot into wide renown among railroad men for his keen sense of exploitation.

But Wait, There’s More!

While Crush’s train-crashing days ended as soon as they started, that wasn’t the end of watching train wrecks as entertainment. Other train crashes were staged across the country, including the annual train wreck at the California State Fair from 1913-1917. You can watch a video of the 1913 train crash, complete with the engineer jumping to safety, on Internet Archive: https://archive.org/details/Californ1913. Fast forward to the 5:00 mark to see the crash scenes.

Did our ancestors enjoy a staged train crash? It would appear so, but in retrospect that isn’t any stranger than modern audiences enjoying action-packed movie crashes or a demolition derby. If there’s one thing history teaches us, it’s that the more things change, the more they stay the same.

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* For a look at the music from the March and an audio recording, see The Baylor University Libraries Digital Collections Blog article “Scott Joplin’s ‘Great Crush Collision March’ and the Memorialization of a Marketing Spectacle” at: http://blogs.baylor.edu/digitalcollections/2012/04/19/scott-joplin%E2%80%99s-%E2%80%9Cgreat-crush-collision-march-and-the-memorialization-of-a-marketing-spectacle/

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Help Wanted-Female Classified Ads: Working Women Ancestors

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena shows how “Help Wanted-Female” ads in historical newspapers can help you learn more about the employment opportunities that were available to your women ancestors—and learn about the places and eras they lived in.

What type of work did your female ancestor do? We often assume that our women ancestors were just “housewives” and didn’t work outside of the home. But for many women and girls, some sort of outside work was not an option—it was a financial necessity.

photo of a secretary at her typewriter, 1912

Photo: secretary at typewriter, 1912. Source: Miami University Libraries.

Early Newspaper Classifieds

So how did your female ancestor find employment? One option would have been the local newspaper’s Help Wanted advertisements. Prior to the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, those classified advertisements were very specific. They didn’t just provide qualifications the employer was looking for; they sometimes specified race, gender, and even age. Classified ads often included the headings “Help Wanted-Female” and “Help Wanted-Male.” In the 1970s this segregation of ads was deemed illegal, and Help-Wanted ads evolved to the advertisements we are accustomed to reading today.

photo of women weavers at work, c. 1910

Photo: weavers at work, c. 1910. Source: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Help Wanted-Female Ads

Help Wanted-Female advertisements were not just employers looking for any qualified woman to apply for their job offerings. These ads were in some cases very specific about what type of female employee they wanted.

Enter Last Name










For example, while these 1885 Help Wanted ads from New York include jobs like cooking and cleaning—they also contain ads that request women of a certain religion or ethnic background. While an obvious sign of discrimination to us, these employment requirements were a common practice in the nineteenth century. In cases of families looking for household help, they may have added such requirements to their ads in hopes of finding someone that mirrored their own familial background, or spoke their language. No doubt, such requirements were sometimes added to Help Wanted ads due to stereotypical beliefs that a certain ethnic or racial group produced better housekeepers and cooks, or were less likely to steal.

help wanted-female ads, New York Herald newspaper advertisements 1 October 1885

New York Herald (New York, New York), 1 October 1885, page 12

photo of women typists and accountants, c. 1920

Photo: typists and accountants, c. 1920. Source: George Eastman House Collection.

Help Wanted advertisements were not just segregated according to gender but also, in some cases, age or race. All of these advertisements from 1921specifically request a female: one wants an “Italian, Spanish or French” woman, one wants a “middle-aged” woman, one wants a “young” woman, and two want “white” women.

help wanted-female ads, Trenton Evening Times newspaper advertisements 13 July 1921

Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, New Jersey), 13 July 1921, page 18

photo of a maid doing laundry, San Diego, California, 1941

Photo: maid doing laundry, San Diego, California, 1941. Source: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Social History in the Classifieds

One of the reasons I love classified advertisements is that they provide some social history information that can assist in learning more about the place and era of your ancestor. The 1885 ad above reflects how American jobs have changed over time, and provides a look at what types of employment women and girls could expect to engage in. In this particular Help Wanted column, one advertisement is searching for a “Girl who can mount hat birds…”

Enter Last Name










To understand this advertisement you need to know a little bit about late nineteenth century fashion history. Women during this time period were sporting hats decorated with bird feathers and entire stuffed birds. These practices resulted in the killing of large numbers of birds in the name of fashion. Later, the production of these hats fell out of favor after concentrated bird conservation efforts targeted women’s demand for the style.

help wanted-female ad, New York Herald newspaper advertisement 1 October 1885

New York Herald (New York, New York), 1 October 1885, page 12

In another Help Wanted example, from 1915, we find an advertisement looking for girls to work in a cigar factory. While today we associate cigar making with Cuba and the Caribbean, during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, cigar making thrived in the United States and was seen as “women’s work” in cities such as Harrisburg, where this Help Wanted advertisement for the Harrisburg Cigar Company is from. This ad starts with announcing that they are looking for girls over 16 years of age to “strip” tobacco (remove the center stem in the tobacco leaf). Other jobs found in making cigars are also listed, including rollers, bunchmakers and packers.

help wanted-female ads, Patriot newspaper advertisements 26 November 1915

Patriot (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania), 26 November 1915, page 11

Situations Wanted

Women didn’t just find work through the Help Wanted ads; they may have also placed an ad in the Situations Wanted column to find a particular employment opportunity. This was a good tactic especially if the woman had a child and needed a live-in situation, was older, or did not speak English.

situation wanted-female ads, Kalamazoo Gazette newspaper advertisements 1 June 1906

Kalamazoo Gazette (Kalamazoo, Michigan), 1 June 1906, page 9

Did your female ancestor have a job? She just might have—and by reading the classifieds in the local newspaper of her hometown and era, you may get a sense for what types of employment were available to her.

Do you know what your early female ancestors did for a living? Please share the positions the women in your family occupied with us in the comments.

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Victorian Women Hike to the Summit of Pikes Peak!

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena finds old newspaper articles and reads about Victorian women who bravely climbed or rode to the top of Pikes Peak in Colorado—some wearing corsets!

Climbing Pikes Peak in Colorado was quite the accomplishment for our nineteenth century ancestors. In 1806 Zebulon Pike declared that he thought the mountain was impossible to climb. At 14,115 feet it is and was no walk in the park. Temperatures can drop 30 to 40 degrees at the higher elevations, a fact that early pioneer hikers were in some cases ill-prepared for.

photo of Pikes Peak, rising above present-day Colorado Springs, Colorado

Photo: Pikes Peak, rising above present-day Colorado Springs, Colorado. Credit: Huttarl; Wikimedia Commons.

Fourteen years after Zebulon Pike’s prophecy, a young man named Edwin James proved that it could be climbed. And so the rest, as they say, is history.

But maybe it’s not a history that’s been completely told.

Imagine hiking the Peak in a long heavy dress and corset! If men thought the hike was difficult in the nineteenth century, it could have only been compounded by what women were expected to wear during this time period. Nonetheless, women did.

Enter Last Name










First Woman on Pike’s Peak

Fifty-two years after Zebulon Pike proclaimed no one could ascend the Peak, a woman did just that: Julia Archibald Holmes, a suffragette and abolitionist, climbed to the top of the peak accompanied by her husband in 1858.

photo of Julia Archibald Holmes, c. 1870

Photo: Julia Archibald Holmes, c. 1870. Credit: Agnes Wright Spring; Wikimedia Commons.

Nearly one hundred years later, her exploit was recounted in this newspaper article.

article about Julia Archibald Holmes, Sacramento Bee newspaper article 10 August 1950

Sacramento Bee (Sacramento, California), 10 August 1950, page 20

In that letter* she wrote her mother from atop Pike’s Peak, Julia said of her historic climb:

Nearly everyone tried to discourage me from attempting it, but I believed that I should succeed; and now here I am, and I feel that I would not have missed this glorious sight for anything at all.

While not as comfortable as today’s sportswear, Julia did wear bloomers and a shorter dress that aided her in hiking more comfortably up to the mountain’s summit.

article about Julia Archibald Holmes, Trenton Evening Times newspaper article 24 August 1961

Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, New Jersey), 24 August 1961, page 19

It’s not exactly spandex, but bloomers were at least an improvement for the intrepid mountain climber!

illustration of “bloomer” dress of the 1850s

Illustration: “bloomer” dress of the 1850s. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

After Julia, women continued to ascend the mountain, some by hiking the trails while others used different modes of transportation.

Pikes Peak Inspires “America the Beautiful”

One of the more famous results of having reached the top of Pikes Peak and marveling at the scenery was the penning of the poem “Pikes Peak” by Katherine Lee Bates; her poem was turned into the patriotic song “America the Beautiful.” As a visiting professor at Colorado College in 1893, Bates had the opportunity to ride up to the Peak. The magnificent view from the top gave her the inspiration to write the poem.

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Woman Journalist Goes to the Top

Not all the women who went to the top of Pikes Peak hiked; some, like Katharine Lee Bates, rode in wagons—or even on the backs of mules. New Orleans newspaper travel writer Catharine Cole (pen name for Martha R. Field) wrote about her journey up Pikes Peak in 1884 on a mule, led by a guide. Her report gives a sense that even with the added convenience of riding up the mountain, a woman still faced challenges with the thin air at high altitude—combined with the difficulty of breathing while wearing a corset!

travel article about Pikes Peak written by Catharine Cole, Times-Picayune newspaper article 6 October 1884

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 6 October 1884, page 2

Suffragettes Hoist Flag

Julia Archibald Holmes wasn’t the only suffragette who climbed the mountain. Like with any endeavor, once there is the pioneer who shows that something can be done, others soon follow. And while women continued to climb Pikes Peak for the adventure and the magnificent view, groups of women also used the mountain as a way to get their message across. In 1909 suffragettes ascended and planted a “Votes for Women” flag at the summit.

"Votes for Women" (flag) Floats from Top of Pike's Peak, Anaconda Standard newspaper article 6 November 1909

Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana), 6 November 1909, page 13

Four Generations of Women from One Family Climb the Peak

This article from a 1905 issue of the Denver Post is a family historian’s dream. It would seem that not just one female member of the family climbed the peak, but four generations of the Knapp family women—including a 4-month-old baby! By achieving this goal they disproved the adage that the Peak was “too high for the very young and the very old.” The youngest in their party, understandably, was the youngest ever to ascend the mountain, and the oldest was 85 years of age. Names, ages, and residences are provided in the article.

Four Generations of One Family (Knapp) Ascent to the Top of Pikes Peak, Denver Post newspaper article 8 October 1905

Denver Post (Denver, Colorado), 8 October 1905, page 47

Pikes Peak Can Be a Dangerous Place

While many have successfully climbed to the summit of Pikes Peak, the ascent is not without risk. As hiking to the summit became popular, more and more individuals and families climbed the mountain and some tragic accidents did occur. In their eagerness to ascend the famous Colorado attraction, some downplayed the potential danger in such a trip. While today we know of difficulties that excess exercise combined with changes in altitude and weather can cause, our ancestors didn’t always consider these factors. One case is that of William and Sallie Skinner, a middle-aged Texas couple who attempted to climb the Peak in August 1911. Ignoring their better judgment, they got to a point where they could no longer go on and eventually froze to death. Ironically, a friend of theirs had sent a letter stating “I hope you don’t freeze to death on Pikes Peak.” This letter was found in Mr. Skinner’s pocket.

Man and Wife Frozen to Death in Snows on Summit of Pikes Peak, Denver Post newspaper article 23 August 1911

Denver Post (Denver, Colorado), 23 August 1911, page 6

We know quite a bit about this one tragic death because a photographer took a photo of the frozen bodies and published postcards. You can learn more about this case by viewing the video produced by the Pikes Peak Library about researching the postcard.

Victorian women accomplished incredible things while wearing heavy dresses and constrictive corsets. Hiking Pikes Peak is just one of many ways they showed that they were up to the challenge.

Did any of your female ancestors accomplish remarkable firsts? Please share your stories with us in the comments.

________

*Robertson, Janet (2003). The Magnificent Mountain Women: Adventures in the Colorado Rockies. University of Nebraska Press.

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Your Immigrant Ancestor: Genealogy Research Tips

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena shows how historical newspapers can help you learn more about your immigrant ancestors and what their immigration experience was like.

What is your ethnic background? Who was your first immigrant ancestor? Newspapers are a great resource for learning more about our individual ancestors as well as the social history of their time. How did your ancestor come to the United States? What was life like when they arrived? Whether you use the newspaper for photos, passenger lists, articles, or some historical background, there’s a good chance you can learn more about your immigrant ancestor by searching an online newspaper database such as GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives.

Immigrants Arriving in America

Ellis Island wasn’t the only arrival port for immigrants in the United States, but over time it has become synonymous with immigration. This short notice and image of Ellis Island in a 1907 North Dakota newspaper proclaims that a million Europeans a year entered the United States.

Ellis Island, Landing Place of Immigrants, Evening Times newspaper article 16 July 1907

Evening Times (Grand Forks, North Dakota), 16 July 1907, page 12

Enter Last Name










Ship lists printed in the newspaper are a great source of information, such as this example from an 1897 New York newspaper.

Incoming Steamers, New York Tribune newspaper article 24 May 1897

New York Tribune (New York, New York), 24 May 1897, page 12

Once you have searched on your immigrant ancestor’s name, the passenger ship they sailed to America on or their country of origin, narrow your search on GenealogyBank’s Search Results page by using the category “Passenger Lists” to focus on just those types of articles.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's search results page showing the "Passenger Lists" category

In the absence of finding a passenger list with your ancestor’s name and the ship they arrived on, consider the ports and modes of transportation available to them. Research their lives in the United States in your effort to learn more about their journey.

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Photos Tell a Story

Images are one way to search historical newspapers. GenealogyBank’s Search Results page lets you narrow your search to articles that contain images by clicking on the “Photos & Illustrations” category.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's search results page showing the "Photos & Illustrations" category

Exploring old photos in newspapers is a great way to learn more about immigrants during the time period that your ancestor came to America. All types of images of newly arrived immigrants graced the pages of newspapers.

photos of immigrants, Anaconda Standard newspaper article 26 December 1920

Anaconda Standard (Anaconda, Montana), 26 December 1920, page 1

Photos of immigrants wearing their native costumes can be found in newspapers, and there can also be photos telling the stories of individual families. For example, the following photo focuses on one particular Dutch family and its 15 members, mostly children of the family. Whoever wrote this newspaper caption had a great sense of humor when they proclaimed: “No nation can beat the Dutch in this wonderful matter of human productivity.” Note that the father’s complete name, Hendrik Feyen, is listed. As a whole, they are referred to as the Feyen family and the wife/mother is referred to only by her first name. When conducting searches for your ancestor, make sure to conduct multiple searches and take into account variations of your ancestors’ names.

Family of Hollanders (the Feyen family) Added to U.S. Population, Twin Falls News newspaper article 26 April 1921

Twin Falls News (Twin Falls, Idaho), 26 April 1921, page 6

If your family immigrated as a group, make sure to search on every name in that family group including a search on just the surname. It’s important not to make assumptions about newspaper articles. For example, in this article about immigrant women traveling to meet up with fiancés living in the United States, the names of the women—but not their beaus—are listed, and where they are from. It would be easy to assume that women would not be mentioned as readily as male partners, but that is not always the case.

article about immigrants Emma Mayenberg and Elsie Becker, Trenton Evening Times newspaper article 13 October 1922

Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, New Jersey), 13 October 1922, page 16

Other types of articles about an individual may not be obvious sources of immigration information. Don’t forget about interviews with older family members and what those can tell you about the person’s life. Anyone who had an unusual story, lived to a ripe old age, or was married for 50+ years may have found themselves the subject of a biographical newspaper article that included their immigration experiences.

GenealogyBank’s Ethnic Newspaper Archives

Searching all possible newspapers is a great idea for researching your ancestor—but don’t forget that GenealogyBank’s Ethnic Newspaper Archives are especially helpful because it’s in the ethnic newspapers that an immigrant community might be written about in more detail than a newspaper serving the general public. Readers of ethnic newspapers would be interested in people from their homeland, so it makes sense that the story of your immigrant ancestor might be featured there.

What’s your ethnic background? Good chance you can learn more about your immigrant ancestor as well as what immigration was like by searching historical newspapers.

Related Immigrant Ancestor Articles:

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The 5 Biggest Mistakes I Made with My Genealogy

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena talks about the five worst mistakes she made when she first began researching her family tree—and offers advice to help other genealogists avoid those same errors.

How long have you been researching your family history? Do you look back at your genealogy research and wish you had done things differently? We all do. Just like parenting, genealogy research is a “learn as you go” proposition. Even when we receive unsolicited advice from more experienced family historians we may ignore that advice, not understanding the wisdom that comes from having researched over time.

illustration of a light bulb

Mistakes? Yeah, I’ve made a few. Here are five that I’ve made researching my family tree—and how you can avoid them.

1) Sources? What’s a Source?

Most genealogists will name “not citing their sources” as a family history research beginner’s regret. Sure, maybe it doesn’t seem like a big deal now—after all, you aren’t publishing anything right? But a year from now when you want to look at a particular record again and you can’t remember where you saw it, believe me you’re going to wish you wrote down the source of that piece of genealogical information.

So how do you remedy that? Well if you want to do a thorough job, you can refer to the Elizabeth Shown Mills classic Evidence Explained. If you are using a genealogy software program, chances are that program includes citation templates that you can use to fill in the blanks. And for those who prefer to copy and paste, do so with the source citations many genealogy websites provide with each document view. Your end goal should be to have enough information about what the document is, and where to locate it, that you or others can find it when they need to.

2) I Don’t Need to Write That Down (Not Recording What You Find)

Really this genealogy research mistake is connected with the first. I remember when I started working on my personal family history research, most genealogists were buried under paper copies. We have come a long way since the days where you worried about how much room photocopies would take up in your suitcase after a trip to the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. And with the ability to subscribe to websites and print from home, that pile of papers just got bigger and bigger. Yes, it’s fun to find stuff and to have that physically on paper, but it’s equally important to record what you find. Whether you do that in a genealogy software program, spreadsheet or database you create, recording what you find will help you avoid repeating searches that you have already exhausted or, worse yet, “finding” information that you had already discovered six months ago.

Another benefit of recording the information—or even transcribing or abstracting that information—is that you get to know the document better. I find I learn so much more about a resource when I’m actively engaging with it by abstracting the information found in that document.

Sure, print or digitally save that census record, newspaper article, or vital record. But after you do that, then record the information so that you have it and can refer back to it when needed.

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3) Not Learning How to Search

Sometimes we think that searching our ancestors is easy. Anyone can do it, right? You just enter a name, date, and place and you find what you need. Well yes, almost anyone can do it but crafting a good search and finding those elusive ancestors involves more than filling in the boxes on a search engine.

So how do you conduct a really good ancestry search? For GenealogyBank, which uses OCR (Optical Character Recognition) to search its content, you get better results by using keywords or a keyword phrase. Don’t limit your ancestor searches to just a name.

First, develop lists of keywords to use in your search. One list of keywords should be name variations for your ancestor including nicknames, initials, and misspellings. For example, if my ancestor is John Jacob Smith, I would want to search for him as John Smith, John J. Smith, J.J. Smith, and Mr. Smith.

Because this ancestor search is for a common surname, simply doing a name search is not enough; I would also want to use GenealogyBank’s advanced search engine to add other keywords to narrow my search to my target ancestor. Create a second list of keywords that includes the places your ancestor was from, their occupation, the name of their spouse, and other details like religion or membership organization.

Also, remember this advice: keep searching over time! Conducting a single search on a website that is constantly adding content, like GenealogyBank, isn’t enough. The newspaper article you need may not have been available back when you did your original search months ago, but perhaps it was added yesterday. Make sure you utilize the “Added Since” button found on the Advanced Search engine to search the latest content, especially if you have conducted a search recently.

(We often discuss genealogy search tips here on the GenealogyBank blog; see the end of this article for a list of relevant examples.)

4) Not Evaluating Evidence

There’s a rush of excitement in finding something new about an ancestor—but in that excitement we don’t always take a moment to really analyze the information we found. What’s involved in analyzing the evidence? A good part of the analyzing involves immersing yourself in reading the document and asking yourself what the document tells you, what it doesn’t tell you, and where you should go next. Don’t take the document at face value; take the time to read slowly and deeply to understand everything that is written down in the article, and use that information to ask additional questions to guide your research further.

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5) Not Having a “Permanent” Email Address

Part of genealogy is networking: reaching out and connecting with other researchers and potential cousins. Making those connections can help you uncover details previously unknown to you. The problem is that in the rush to change an Internet provider we are unhappy with, we often forget all of the clues and questions we’ve left on various message boards and social media websites using that no-longer-current email address as our only contact information. There’s nothing worse than having the answer to someone’s genealogy problem—only to send them an email and having that email bounce because it’s no longer a valid address.

So before you make all those posts and ask all of those questions on genealogy subscription websites, message boards and social media sites, secure a permanent email address through a website like Gmail or Hotmail. This email address won’t change if you switch Internet providers, thus leaving you with a permanent online address for potential cousins to find you today and six years from now.

What genealogy mistakes have you made in your family history research? Fess up in the comments below and help other genealogy researchers not fall into the same traps.

Related Genealogy Search Articles:

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State Fair Food Fare: Strange Eats & Award-Winning Recipes

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena talks about how important food has been in the history of state fairs—both the food and recipe competitions, as well as some unusual treats offered for your consumption at the fair.

Do your plans this summer include a trip to your state’s fair? State fairs have been around since 1841 and are a showcase for all types of goods, though their origins focused on agriculture.* State agriculture boards utilized early state fairs as a means to assist farmers in learning how to improve their crops and livestock, as well as highlighting products used in farming.

Competitions provided cash prizes as well as bragging rights for participating farmers and their families.** Today, state fairs offer all kinds of competitions and prizes for the best in everything from agriculture and livestock to arts and crafts. The state fair represents the “best of the best,” with those who have won ribbons and awards at a county fair competing at the state level.

And of course, there are the food booths at state fairs, making these events veritable smorgasbords—which offer some surprising cuisine. Chocolate-covered bacon, anyone?

photo of a booth offering chocolate-covered bacon at the California State Fair

Photo: booth offering chocolate-covered bacon at the California State Fair. Credit: Kim von Aspern-Parker.

1849 New York State Fair at Syracuse

State Fair at Syracuse, Trenton State Gazette newspaper article 12 September 1849

Trenton State Gazette (Trenton, New Jersey), 12 September 1849, page 2

As anyone who’s been to a state fair can attest, food is integral to the experience. Often the food we eat at the fair is out of the ordinary and reserved for just such an outing (think deep fried Twinkies, chocolate-covered bacon and funnel cakes). The fair food often borders between what you want to eat and what you want to eat just this once.

photo of a booth offering deep fried Twinkies, Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups, and Snickers at the California State Fair

Photo: booth offering deep fried Twinkies, Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups, and Snickers at the California State Fair. Credit: Kim von Aspern-Parker.

1918 Idaho State Fair Cancelled Due to War

The food served at the fair has changed over time to reflect the region and current tastes as well as world events. Consider this newspaper article referring to a barbeque for the Idaho State Fair in 1918, during World War I. The event, referred to as the “eatfest,” was cancelled in an effort to conserve food because the previous barbecue attendees had consumed “five beeves,” “600 huge Pullman loaves of bread” and “200 pounds of sugar.” Readers are assured that the eatfest would return:

when the war is over and the United States forces march into Berlin they will put on a barbecue that will make the world sit up and take notice…

State Fair Barbecue Cancelled for Wartime, Idaho Statesman newspaper article 20 September 1918

Idaho Statesman (Boise, Idaho), 20 September 1918, page 5

photo of a booth offering corn dogs and cotton candy at the California State Fair

Photo: booth offering corn dogs and cotton candy at the California State Fair. Credit: Kim von Aspern-Parker.

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1860 Utah State Fair Awards

Throughout the history of state fairs, all kinds of awards have been given for food. While some awards are aimed toward crops and livestock, others are for prepared food items. In this 1860 award listing from the Deseret Agriculture and Manufacturing Society (the original name for the Utah State Fair), Utah Governor and Mormon President Brigham Young won in several categories including the Vegetables category for best 6 stalks of celery, best 4 heads of cauliflower, and best “peck of silver onions.” Interestingly enough, there is a Women’s Work category that does not include food.

listing of awards presented at the 1860 Utah State Fair, Deseret News newspaper article 17 October 1860

Deseret News (Salt Lake City, Utah), 17 October 1860, page 263

photo of various food booths at the California State Fair

Photo: various food booths at the California State Fair. Credit: Kim von Aspern-Parker.

1933 Texas State Fair Recipe Contest

State fairs evolved to provide women with the chance to submit their favorite recipes for prizes. In this photo montage from the 1933 Texas State Fair, some of the winners in the food categories are listed as well as their street addresses.

Prize Winners in State Fair Food Exhibit, Dallas Morning News newspaper article 13 October 1933

Dallas Morning News (Dallas, Texas), 13 October 1933, section I, page 5

photo of first-place jams at the California State Fair

Photo: first-place jams at the California State Fair. Credit: Kim von Aspern-Parker.

Blue Ribbon Recipes from 1937 Illinois State Fair

The obvious question asked when someone wins a blue ribbon for their recipe is: what is their secret? In some cases, you can find state fair winning recipes printed in the newspaper. In this example from the “Homemakers Institute” column, encouraging women to get their children involved in cooking, two blue ribbon recipes from the Illinois State Fair are featured: Baking Powder Biscuits and Sugar Cookies.

article about recipe winners at the Illinois State Fair, Daily Illinois State Journal newspaper article 22 August 1937

Daily Illinois State Journal (Springfield, Illinois), 22 August 1937, page 8

photo of the gold cheese award at the California State Fair

Photo: gold cheese award at the California State Fair. Credit: Kim von Aspern-Parker.

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Fruit Cake Prize Winner

In this article about Mrs. Florence Dickinson, a multiple blue ribbon-winning cook, she provides her fruit cake recipe and remarks that “as long as people like to eat, women will like to cook.” She goes on to point out that the modern woman, a la 1935, has more time on her hands because of modern appliances and that allows them to not concentrate their entire day on cooking.

Mrs. Florence Dickinson Gives Recipe for Specialty (Fruit Cake), Richmond Times Dispatch newspaper article 5 November 1935

Richmond Times Dispatch (Richmond, Virginia), 5 November 1935, page 7

Did anyone in your family win a prize for a recipe they submitted to the fair? Did they pass down their prize-winning recipe? If so, please share your family recipes with us as we’d all love to try a taste.

Provide us a newspaper clipping or recipe card and we’ll add it to our Old Fashioned Family Recipes Pinterest board.  You can email the blog editor with your clippings and cards at: apettinato@genealogybank.com

Follow Genealogy Bank’s board Old Fashioned Family Recipes on Pinterest.


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* Time Magazine. “A Brief History of State Fairs”: http://content.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1916488_1921788,00.html. Accessed 26 July 2014.
** Shrader, Valerie V.A. “Blue Ribbon Afghans from America’s State Fairs: 40 Prize-Winning Crocheted Designs.” New York: Lark Books, 2003, p. 7.

Related Food History & Family Recipe Articles:

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Must-Read Genealogy Books

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena discusses eight genealogy books that she has found helpful with her family history research.

What’s on your summer reading list? It doesn’t matter what literature genre you enjoy, make sure to carve out some time to read genealogy and history books. By reading more about genealogy you can learn research methodologies, discover new-to-you resources, and enhance your skills.

At the GenealogyBank Store you can find must-have books for every family history researcher.

Need some genealogy book recommendations? Here are just a few of my favorites reads.

You Can Write Your Family History

One of the reasons I love newspaper research is because of the rich content you can add to the story of your ancestor’s life. But for many researchers, after the thrill of finding information there is the nagging question of what to do with all of it. Sharon DeBartolo Carmack’s book You Can Write Your Family History provides the tools for taking all of that research and turning it into a family history that everyone will want to read. My favorite part of this book is the chapters on researching and using social history to add interest to your family history story. Read those chapters to take your research from something only a genealogist would want to read to something each and every family member will treasure.

photo of the genealogy book "You Can Write Your Family History"

The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy, Third Edition

What is one of the must-have books for every researcher tracing their United States roots? The Researcher’s Guide to American Genealogy, Third Edition by Val D. Greenwood should be on every family historian’s bookshelf. Looking for a good overview of the fundamentals of research and sources for tracing your family? This is the book. Greenwood explains how to research using “compiled sources, vital and census records, wills and probate records, local and federal land records, civil and criminal court records, church records, military records, immigration records, and cemetery and burial records.” Every researcher should have a basic how-to genealogy book that covers sources and methodologies, and this is one of the best.

photo of the genealogy book "The Researcher's Guide to American Genealogy"

The Family Tree Guidebook to Europe

Is it time for you to jump across the pond with your genealogy research? Instead of just guessing about what to do next, refer to The Family Tree Guidebook to Europe. This book is not only a good place to find maps and resources, it also provides timelines of events that would have impacted your ancestor’s life. Because history and changing geographical boundaries affected your ancestor’s homeland, consult this work before making your research plans.

photo of the genealogy book "The Family Tree Guidebook to Europe"

The Family Tree Sourcebook

A “companion” to Family Tree Guidebook to Europe is The Family Tree Sourcebook, a must for learning more about states you are researching.

photo of the genealogy book "The Family Tree Sourcebook"

Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 1790-1920

One of the first genealogy books I saved up to buy was the Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 1790-1920 by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide. I believe it was co-author William Dollarhide who once made the quip that you could have an ancestor live in five different counties but never move out of their home. This guide shows county outline maps for every 10 years from 1790-1920. Knowing and understanding county boundaries can benefit your census research as well as your finding other types of records (as well as save you valuable research time). To better understand your ancestor’s life, migration, and where to look for records, stock your personal library with maps and map guides. This book will be a great addition to that genealogy collection.

photo of the genealogy book "Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses 1790-1920"

Guide to Naturalization Records in the United States

I’m a big fan of author Christina K. Schaefer’s books. Her Guide to Naturalization Records in the United States is a perfect addition to your library, especially as a resource after you’ve searched for your ancestor’s name on passenger lists in GenealogyBank. This book: “state by state, county by county, city by city, the Guide to Naturalization Records identifies all repositories of naturalization records, systematically indicating the types of records held, their dates of coverage, and the location of original and microfilm records. The Guide also pinpoints the whereabouts of federal court records in all National Archives facilities. But perhaps the most unique feature of the Guide to Naturalization Records is that it identifies every single piece of information on naturalizations that is available on microfilm through the National Archives or the Family History Library System…”

photo of the genealogy book "Guide to Naturalization Records in the United States"

The Hidden Half of the Family: A Sourcebook for Women’s Genealogy

Other books by Christina K. Schaefer include The Hidden Half of the Family: A Sourcebook for Women’s Genealogy, another excellent guide that provides state-by-state resources (and early laws that affected women) for researching female ancestors.

photo of the genealogy book "The Hidden Half of the Family: A Sourcebook for Women’s Genealogy"

Turn Your iPad into a Genealogy Powerhouse

Do you have an iPad? If so, I hope you’re using it for your genealogy. It wasn’t too long ago that doing research at a library or archives meant lugging around a rolling suitcase with a laptop, camera, and more. Today, I simply take my iPad and I have everything I need to research, take images of and store documents, refer to my family tree and look up my virtual library. Technology isn’t doing you any good if you don’t know how to use it. Consider checking out genealogy podcaster and international speaker Lisa Louise Cooke’s Turn Your iPad into a Genealogy Powerhouse. Along with tips and suggestions, there is a look at over 65 apps that can help you make the most of your iPad. While this book is geared towards the iPad, Cooke includes comparable apps for Android tablets.

photo of the genealogy book "Turn Your iPad into a Genealogy Powerhouse"

Looking for more genealogy book ideas? I’ve only hit the tip of the iceberg in this article. For more books including country-specific and early American guides, see the GenealogyBank Store.

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Top 7 Websites for Revolutionary War Genealogy

Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this blog post, Gena discusses—and provides links to—seven top online resources for researching your American Revolutionary War ancestors.

Do you have a Revolutionary War ancestor? Maybe you have always heard that your ancestor was a soldier or a patriot during the American Revolution. Perhaps you have a female ancestor who was a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR). Do you have copies of your ancestor’s military records but are not sure where to go next with your family history research? It’s time to make a genealogy research plan.

Painting: surrender of British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga on 17 October 1777 to American General Horatio Gates, by John Trumbull

Painting: surrender of British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga on 17 October 1777 to American General Horatio Gates, by John Trumbull. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

When thinking about researching your Revolutionary ancestor, consider what records may be left behind that result from his military service, death, and even his legacy.* Also keep in mind where such records may be held. While it’s easy to assume that the majority of records will be found at the National Archives or a subscription-based website, there are various online repositories with historical Revolutionary-period records useful to your ancestry research.

Ask questions of each record you find and then look for documents that answer those questions. While some of the research you do will involve looking for documents that include his name, there will be general histories about events your ancestor was involved in—which don’t specifically mention him by name—that you will also want to consult to learn more about his day-to-day life in the battlefields and political developments of the time.

Not sure where to start? Begin first with an overall search of newspapers and digitized books.

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1) Newspaper Articles and Historical Books

In my previous article Tracing Your Colonial & Revolutionary Ancestry in Newspapers, I wrote about articles that can be found in GenealogyBank’s Historical Newspaper Archives for finding your Revolutionary War ancestor. Whether you are just starting your research or have been at it for years, you should begin with newspapers to see what more you can learn. Because GenealogyBank is constantly adding newspapers, searching just once is not enough—keep coming back, to search the new material. A helpful feature of GenealogyBank’s Newspaper Archives search page is that you can narrow your search to an “Added Since” date so that you are not going through the same results you viewed previously.

screenshot of GenealogyBank's Historical Newspaper Archives search page

Obviously, one of the newspaper article-types that you will hope to find is an obituary. An obituary may provide key information including family members’ names, military service, occupation, and the cemetery where he is buried.

One resource researchers might not be as familiar with is GenealogyBank’s Historical Documents & Records collection, which includes the American State Papers. These federal government documents can include mentions of Revolutionary War soldiers—and their widows—as they applied for things like pensions.

Search Tip: As you search the GenealogyBank collections, make sure to keep in mind name variations. Don’t just stop after searching one version of your ancestor’s name. Write out a list of various name combinations that take into account their initials, name abbreviations (Jno, Benj., Wm.), and nicknames—as well as possible misspellings of the first and last name.

2) Online Grave Listings

In addition to newspaper articles and historical books, there are several online resources available for lists of Revolutionary War soldiers’ graves. To read more about these resources, see the article Revolutionary War Cemetery Records on the FamilySearch Wiki.

screenshot of FamilySearch's page for American Revolutionary War records

Source: FamilySearch

3) Daughters of the American Revolution

Want to verify that your ancestor was a Revolutionary War patriot? Maybe you have a copy of a female family member’s DAR application. Looking to become a member of the DAR or the SAR (Sons of the American Revolution)? Even if you aren’t interested in joining these groups, they have a vast collection of resources that can help you with your research. According to DAR member and chapter registrar Sheri Beffort Fenley, there are two resources all non-DAR members should use.

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The first is the Genealogical Research System. According to their website, the Genealogical Research System (GRS) “is a collection of databases that provide access to the many materials amassed by the DAR since its founding in 1890.”

screenshot of the Daughters of the American Revolution's Genealogical Research System website

Source: Daughters of the American Revolution

The second resource Fenley recommends is the DAR Library.

screenshot of the Daughters of the American Revolution's Library website

Source: Daughters of the American Revolution

While you are looking at the DAR homepage, make sure to click on the Resources tab. Here you’ll find the Revolutionary Pension Card Index as well as a great eBook entitled Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots of the Revolutionary War: A Guide to Service, Sources, and Studies.

4) Google Books

I would also recommend using Google Books to look through books and periodicals involving the DAR and their various chapters, as well as other genealogical information from the Revolutionary War. It’s a great place to find lineages and transcriptions.

screenshot of the Google Books website

Source: Google

5) Sons of the American Revolution

The Sons of the American Revolution Genealogical Research Library in Kentucky also may be of use to your research. To learn more about their collection and their SAR Patriot Index, see their website.

screenshot of the Sons of the American Revolution's Research Library website

Source: Sons of the American Revolution

6) National Archives & Records Administration (NARA)

The National Archives holds the records of our federal government, including military records. For the Revolutionary War you can find everything from Compiled Military Service Records to pensions and bounty land records. (Please note that NARA is the caretaker for federal records; they do not have state records such as state militia records. For those records, you need to contact the appropriate state archives.) Click here to see a list of NARA Revolutionary War records. A good tutorial for learning more about obtaining military records from NARA is on their web page: Genealogy Research in Military Records.

screenshot of the National Archives and Records Administration's American Revolutionary War records website

Source: National Archives and Records Administration

7) FamilySearch Resources

There are also several Revolutionary War databases available from the free website FamilySearch, including the searchable United States Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty Land Warrant Applications, 1800-1900. Most people automatically think of service records and pensions when they think of military service—but what is often missed are bounty land grants. Military Bounty Land was offered to men in return for their military service. This served as both an enticement and a reward for longer service. Your ancestor may have received much more from his service than just monetary compensation. To learn more about bounty land and how to research it, see Christine Rose’s book Military Bounty Land 1776-1855.

The United States Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783 from FamilySearch “contains images of muster rolls, payrolls, strength returns, and other personnel, pay, and supply records of the American Army during the Revolutionary War.” This collection is not searchable; you have to browse it, and you need to know the state your soldier fought for. Make sure to utilize the FamilySearch Family History Research Wiki to learn more about other Revolutionary War documents available from FamilySearch.

screenshot of FamilySearch's Family History Research Wiki website

Source: FamilySearch

Wherever you are in your search for your Revolutionary War ancestor, make sure to have a plan and a list of genealogy resources—and then go through each one. Using a combination of sources including newspapers, digitized books, and military records, you can start to put together the story of your Revolutionary War ancestor soldier’s life.

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* Because the majority of soldiers in the Revolutionary War were men, I’m going to refer to them as “he.” However, women did fight alongside their male relatives on the battlegrounds. To learn more about the women of the Revolutionary War, see the book Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America’s Independence by Carol Berkin.

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